premake/README.txt
author Philipp Wiesemann <philipp.wiesemann@arcor.de>
Wed, 17 Aug 2016 21:04:50 +0200
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Author: Ben Henning <b.henning@digipen.edu>
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The goal of this project is to provide a lightweight and portable meta-build
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system for generating build systems for various platforms and architectures, all
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for the SDL2 library and subsequently dependent executables.
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Following is a table of contents for the entire README file.
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[0] OVERVIEW
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[1] GENERATING PROJECTS AND COMMAND-LINE OPTIONS
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[2] STRUCTURE
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[3] SUPPORT ON WINDOWS AND VISUAL STUDIO
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[4] SUPPORT ON MAC OS X AND XCODE
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[5] SUPPORT FOR IOS
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[6] SUPPORT FOR LINUX
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[7] SUPPORT FOR MINGW
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[8] SUPPORT FOR CYGWIN
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[9] EXTENDING THE SYSTEM TO NEW PROJECTS OR PLATFORMS (code samples)
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[0] OVERVIEW
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The system is capable of generating projects for many different platforms and
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architectures. How to generically generate projects is described in the next
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section. Subsequent sections thereafter describe more specific ways to generate
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projects and dependencies projects have.
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All of the projects inherently have things in common, such as depending on the
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same source tree for header and source files. All projects generated will also
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have both debug and release configurations available to be built. More
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information on how to build either will be provided below.
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To view a list of progress on the project, view the changelog.
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[1] GENERATING PROJECTS AND COMMAND-LINE OPTIONS
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To receive help with various premake actions and command-line options, or to
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view the options available for the current premake environment, run the
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following command:
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    ./premake4 --file=./path/to/premake4.lua help
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To construct the project files, run this local command from any command line:
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    .\premake4 --file=.\path\to\premake4.lua --to=.\resultDirectory [opts] [vs2008/vs2010/vs2012]
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OR
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    ./premake4 --file=./path/to/premake4.lua --to=./resultDirectory [opts] [xcode3/xcode4/gmake]
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opts may be one of:
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  --mingw
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  --cygwin
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  --ios
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opts may also include any of the following:
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  --alsa        :  Force the ALSA dependency on for Linux targets.
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  --dbus        :  Force the D-Bus dependency on for Linux targets.
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  --directx     :  Force the DirectX dependency on for Windows, MinGW, and Cygwin targets.
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  --dlopen      :  Force the DLOpen dependency on for Linux targets.
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  --esd         :  Force the ESD dependency on for Linux targets.
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  --nas         :  Force the NAS dependency on for Linux targets.
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  --opengl      :  Force the OpenGL dependency on for any target.
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  --oss         :  Force the OSS dependency on for Linux targets.
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  --pulseaudio  :  Force the PulseAudio dependency on for Linux targets.
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  --x11         :  Force the X11 dependency on for Linux targets.
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All projects have debug and release configurations that may be built. For IDE
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projects such as Visual Studio and Xcode, there are configurations in the former
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and schemas in the latter to handle this.
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For make files, the following command line may be used:
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    make config=debug
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or:
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    make config=release
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The make files also have a level of verbosity that will print all compiler and
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linking commands to the command line. This can be enabled with the following
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command:
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    make verbose=1
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[2] STRUCTURE
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The structure of the meta-build system is split into three parts:
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  1. The core system which runs all of the other scripts, generates the premake
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    Lua file that is used to generate the actual build system, and sets up
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    premake to generate it. (premake4.lua)
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  2. The utility files for performing various convenience operations, ranging
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    from string operations and a file wrapper to custom project definitions and
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    complex dependency checking using CMake-esque functions. There is also a
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    file containing custom dependency functions for checked support.
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    (everything in the util folder)
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  3. The project definition files, which define each and every project related
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    to SDL2. This includes the SDL2 library itself, along with all of its
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    current tests and iOS Demos. These files also related to dependency handling
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    and help build dependency trees for the various projects.
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    (everything in the projects folder)
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The premake4.lua file is lightly documented and commented to explain how it
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interfaces with the other utility files and project files. It is not extensively
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documented because the actual generation process is not considered to be
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pertinent to the overall usage of the meta-build system.
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The utility files have thorough documentation, since they are the foundation for
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the entire project definition and dependency handling systems.
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The project definition files are lightly documented, since they are expected to
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be self-explanatory. Look through each and every project definition file
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(especially SDL2.lua, testgl2.lua, testshape.lua, testsprite2.lua, and
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testnative.lua) to gain experience and familiarity with most of the project
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definition system.
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The dependency system is very straightforward. As explained in both
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sdl_projects.lua and sdl_dependency_checkers.lua, a function for checking the
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actual dependency support is registered by its name and then referenced to in
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the project definitions (such as for SDL2.lua). These definitions are allowed to
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do anything necessary to determine whether the appropriate support exists in the
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current build environment or not. The possibilities for checking can be seen
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specifically in the function for checking DirectX support and any of the Linux
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dependency functions using the sdl_check_compile.lua functions.
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As far as building the projects is concerned, the project definitions are
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allowed to set configuration key-value pairs which will be translated and placed
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inside a generated SDL config header file, similar to the one generated by both
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autotools and CMake.
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[3] SUPPORT ON WINDOWS AND VISUAL STUDIO
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Check the Windows README for more information on SDL2 support on Windows and
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Visual Studio. Current support exists for Visual Studio 2008, 2010, and 2012.
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[4] SUPPORT ON MAC OS X AND XCODE
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Check the Mac OS X README for more information on SDL2 support on Mac OS X using
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Xcode. Current support should exist for Mac OS X 10.6, 10.7, and 10.8 (as
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tested, but more may be supported). Supported Xcode versions are 3 and 4. It
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supports building for both i686 and x86_64 architectures, as well as support for
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universal 32-bit binaries, universal 64-bit binaries, and universal combined
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binaries.
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[5] SUPPORT FOR IOS
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EXPERIMENTAL SUPPORT
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Check the iOS README for more information on SDL2 support on iOS using Xcode.
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Current support has been tested on the iOS 6 emulators for iPhone and iPad,
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using both Xcode 3 and Xcode 4. The iOS project will reference all the Demos
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the manual project does.
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[6] SUPPORT FOR LINUX
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EXPERIMENTAL SUPPORT
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Check the Linux README for more information on SDL2 support on Linux. Currently,
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only a subset of the Linux dependencies are supported, and they are supported
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partially. Linux also builds to a static library instead of a shared library.
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The tests run well and as expected.
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[7] SUPPORT FOR MINGW
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Check the MinGW README for more information on SDL2 support on MinGW. Currently,
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all of the tests that work using the Visual Studio projects also seem to work
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with MinGW, minus DirectX support. DirectX is not inherently supported, but can
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be forcibly turned on if the user knows what they are doing.
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[8] SUPPORT FOR CYGWIN
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BROKEN SUPPORT
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Check the Cygwin README for more information on the progress of supporting SDL2
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on Cygwin.
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[9] EXTENDING THE SYSTEM TO NEW PROJECTS OR PLATFORMS
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In order to create a new project, simply create a Lua file and place it within
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the projects directory. The meta-build system will automatically include it.
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It must contain a SDL_project definition. Projects *must* have source files as
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well, otherwise they will be ignored by the meta-build system. There are a
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plethora of examples demonstrating how to defined projects, link them to various
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dependencies, and to create dependencies.
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Here is an example that creates a new project named foo, it's a ConsoleApp
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(which is the default for SDL projects, look at http://industriousone.com/kind
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for more information). Its language is C and its source directory is "../test"
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(this path is relative to the location of premake4.lua). It's project location
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is "tests", which means it will be placed in the ./tests/ folder of whichever
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destination directory is set while generating the project (for example,
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./VisualC/tests). It is including all the files starting with "foo." from the
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"../test" folder.
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    SDL_project "foo"
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    	SDL_kind "ConsoleApp"
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    	SDL_language "C"
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    	SDL_sourcedir "../test"
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    	SDL_projectLocation "tests"
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    	SDL_files { "/testrendercopyex.*" }
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Now, we can extend this project slightly:
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    SDL_project "foo"
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    	SDL_kind "ConsoleApp"
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    	SDL_notos "ios|cygwin"
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    	SDL_language "C"
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    	SDL_sourcedir "../test"
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    	SDL_projectLocation "tests"
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    	SDL_projectDependencies { "SDL2main", "SDL2test", "SDL2" }
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    	SDL_files { "/foo.*" }
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    	SDL_copy { "icon.bmp", "sample.bmp" }
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We now specified that this application will not work on iOS or Cygwin targets,
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so it will be discluded when generating projects for those platforms. We have
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also specified that this project depends on 'SDL2main', 'SDL2test', and 'SDL2',
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which are other projects that are already defined. We can set the dependency
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to any projects the SDL2 meta-build system is aware of. We also have an
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interesting SDL_copy directive, which will automatically copy the files
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"icon.bmp" and "sample.bmp" from "<sdl_root>/test" to the directory of foo's
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executable when it's built.
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Let's take a look at another example:
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    SDL_project "testgl2"
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    	SDL_kind "ConsoleApp"
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    	SDL_notos "ios|cygwin"
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    	SDL_language "C"
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    	SDL_sourcedir "../test"
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    	SDL_projectLocation "tests"
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    	SDL_projectDependencies { "SDL2main", "SDL2test", "SDL2" }
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    	SDL_defines { "HAVE_OPENGL" }
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    	SDL_dependency "OpenGL"
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    		-- opengl is platform independent
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    		SDL_depfunc "OpenGL"
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    		SDL_files { "/testgl2.*" }
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This is a copy of the testgl2.lua file. Most of this is already familiar, but
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there are a few new things to point out. We can set preprocessor definitions by
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using the 'SDL_defines' directive. We can also create a dependency for the
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project on some varied criteria. For example, testgl2 is obviously dependent on
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the presence of the OpenGL library. So, the only way it will include the
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"testgl2.*" (testgl2.c/testgl2.h) files is if the dependency function "OpenGL"
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returns information regarding the whereabouts of the OpenGL library on the
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current system. This function is registered in sdl_dependency_checkers.lua:
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    function openGLDep()
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    	print("Checking OpenGL dependencies...")
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    	...
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    	return { found = foundLib, libDirs = { }, libs = { libname } }
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    end
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    ...
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    SDL_registerDependencyChecker("OpenGL", openGLDep)
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This function is called when it's time to decide whether testgl2 should be
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generated or not. openGLDep can use any and all functions to decide whether
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OpenGL is supported.
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Dependencies and projects can become much more sophisticate, if necessary. Take
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the following example from the SDL2.lua project definition:
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    -- DirectX dependency
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    SDL_dependency "directx"
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    	SDL_os "windows|mingw"
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    	SDL_depfunc "DirectX"
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    	SDL_config
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    	{
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    		["SDL_AUDIO_DRIVER_DSOUND"] = 1,
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    		["SDL_AUDIO_DRIVER_XAUDIO2"] = 1,
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    		["SDL_JOYSTICK_DINPUT"] = 1,
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    		["SDL_HAPTIC_DINPUT"] = 1,
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    		["SDL_VIDEO_RENDER_D3D"] = 1
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    	}
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    	SDL_paths
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    	{
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    		"/audio/directsound/",
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    		"/audio/xaudio2/",
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    		"/render/direct3d/",
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    		-- these two depend on Xinput
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    		"/haptic/windows/",
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    		"/joystick/windows/",
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    	}
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This dependency is, as expected, for DirectX. One thing to note here is even
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dependencies can be dependent on an operating system. This dependency will not
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even be resolved if SDL2 is being generated on, say, Linux or Mac OS X. Two new
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things shown here are 'SDL_config' and 'SDL_paths' directives. SDL_config allows
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you to set preprocessor definitions that will be pasted into
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SDL_config_premake.h (which acts as a replacement to SDL_config.h when building
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the project). This allows for significant flexibility (look around SDL2.lua's
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dependencies, especially for Linux). SDL_paths works like SDL_files, except it
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includes all .c, .h, and .m files within that directory. The directory is still
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relative to the source directory of the project (in this case, <sdl_root>/src).
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Finally, dependency checking can be done in a huge variety of ways, ranging
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from simply checking for an environmental variable to scanning directories on
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Windows. Even more flexibly, the build environment itself can be checked using
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functions similar to those provided in CMake to check if a function compiles,
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library exists, etc. The following example comes from
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sdl_dependency_checkers.lua and is used by the Linux dependency in the SDL2
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project to determine whether the OSS sound system is supported:
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    function ossDep()
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    	print("Checking for OSS support...")
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    	if not check_cxx_source_compiles([[
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    				#include <sys/soundcard.h>
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    				int main() { int arg = SNDCTL_DSP_SETFRAGMENT; return 0; }]])
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    			and not check_cxx_source_compiles([[
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    				#include <soundcard.h>
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    				int main() { int arg = SNDCTL_DSP_SETFRAGMENT; return 0; }]]) then
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    		print("Warning: OSS unsupported!")
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    		return { found = false }
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    	end
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    	return { found = true }
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    end
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Notice how it uses 'check_cxx_source_compiles'. There are even more functions
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than this to check and, rather than going in detail with them here, I encourage
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you to look at the documented functions within ./util/sdl_check_compile.lua.
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In order to support new platforms, start with the minimal configuration template
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provided and work off of the initial SDL2 project. You may add additional
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dependencies to define other source files specific to that platform (see how
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it's done with Windows and Mac OS X), or you can add special dependencies that
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rely on dependency functions you may implement yourself (see DirectX and
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OpenGL). Dependencies can use the 'SDL_config' directive to specify special
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values that can be pasted into the resulting configuration header file upon
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generation.
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For more detailed information about the functions supported and how they work,
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look at all of the Lua files in the util directory, as well as any of the
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example projects in the projects directory to demonstrate how many of these
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functions are used. The information above is only a quick subset of the
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capabilities of the meta-build system.