Moved lua-5.1.3 directory to lua, so we don't have to for each Lua release.
authorRyan C. Gordon <icculus@icculus.org>
Tue, 02 Sep 2008 04:22:45 -0400
changeset 502 83b777deb377
parent 501 eb8abc983500
child 503 7382a3d1bdee
Moved lua-5.1.3 directory to lua, so we don't have to for each Lua release.
src/CMakeLists.txt
src/lua-5.1.3/COPYRIGHT
src/lua-5.1.3/HISTORY
src/lua-5.1.3/INSTALL
src/lua-5.1.3/Makefile
src/lua-5.1.3/README
src/lua-5.1.3/doc/amazon.gif
src/lua-5.1.3/doc/contents.html
src/lua-5.1.3/doc/cover.png
src/lua-5.1.3/doc/logo.gif
src/lua-5.1.3/doc/lua.1
src/lua-5.1.3/doc/lua.css
src/lua-5.1.3/doc/lua.html
src/lua-5.1.3/doc/luac.1
src/lua-5.1.3/doc/luac.html
src/lua-5.1.3/doc/manual.css
src/lua-5.1.3/doc/manual.html
src/lua-5.1.3/doc/readme.html
src/lua-5.1.3/etc/Makefile
src/lua-5.1.3/etc/README
src/lua-5.1.3/etc/all.c
src/lua-5.1.3/etc/lua.hpp
src/lua-5.1.3/etc/lua.ico
src/lua-5.1.3/etc/lua.pc
src/lua-5.1.3/etc/luavs.bat
src/lua-5.1.3/etc/min.c
src/lua-5.1.3/etc/noparser.c
src/lua-5.1.3/etc/strict.lua
src/lua-5.1.3/src/Makefile
src/lua-5.1.3/src/lapi.c
src/lua-5.1.3/src/lapi.h
src/lua-5.1.3/src/lauxlib.c
src/lua-5.1.3/src/lauxlib.h
src/lua-5.1.3/src/lbaselib.c
src/lua-5.1.3/src/lcode.c
src/lua-5.1.3/src/lcode.h
src/lua-5.1.3/src/ldblib.c
src/lua-5.1.3/src/ldebug.c
src/lua-5.1.3/src/ldebug.h
src/lua-5.1.3/src/ldo.c
src/lua-5.1.3/src/ldo.h
src/lua-5.1.3/src/ldump.c
src/lua-5.1.3/src/lfunc.c
src/lua-5.1.3/src/lfunc.h
src/lua-5.1.3/src/lgc.c
src/lua-5.1.3/src/lgc.h
src/lua-5.1.3/src/linit.c
src/lua-5.1.3/src/liolib.c
src/lua-5.1.3/src/llex.c
src/lua-5.1.3/src/llex.h
src/lua-5.1.3/src/llimits.h
src/lua-5.1.3/src/lmathlib.c
src/lua-5.1.3/src/lmem.c
src/lua-5.1.3/src/lmem.h
src/lua-5.1.3/src/loadlib.c
src/lua-5.1.3/src/lobject.c
src/lua-5.1.3/src/lobject.h
src/lua-5.1.3/src/lopcodes.c
src/lua-5.1.3/src/lopcodes.h
src/lua-5.1.3/src/loslib.c
src/lua-5.1.3/src/lparser.c
src/lua-5.1.3/src/lparser.h
src/lua-5.1.3/src/lstate.c
src/lua-5.1.3/src/lstate.h
src/lua-5.1.3/src/lstring.c
src/lua-5.1.3/src/lstring.h
src/lua-5.1.3/src/lstrlib.c
src/lua-5.1.3/src/ltable.c
src/lua-5.1.3/src/ltable.h
src/lua-5.1.3/src/ltablib.c
src/lua-5.1.3/src/ltm.c
src/lua-5.1.3/src/ltm.h
src/lua-5.1.3/src/lua.c
src/lua-5.1.3/src/lua.h
src/lua-5.1.3/src/luac.c
src/lua-5.1.3/src/luaconf.h
src/lua-5.1.3/src/lualib.h
src/lua-5.1.3/src/lundump.c
src/lua-5.1.3/src/lundump.h
src/lua-5.1.3/src/lvm.c
src/lua-5.1.3/src/lvm.h
src/lua-5.1.3/src/lzio.c
src/lua-5.1.3/src/lzio.h
src/lua-5.1.3/src/print.c
src/lua-5.1.3/test/README
src/lua-5.1.3/test/bisect.lua
src/lua-5.1.3/test/cf.lua
src/lua-5.1.3/test/echo.lua
src/lua-5.1.3/test/env.lua
src/lua-5.1.3/test/factorial.lua
src/lua-5.1.3/test/fib.lua
src/lua-5.1.3/test/fibfor.lua
src/lua-5.1.3/test/globals.lua
src/lua-5.1.3/test/hello.lua
src/lua-5.1.3/test/life.lua
src/lua-5.1.3/test/luac.lua
src/lua-5.1.3/test/printf.lua
src/lua-5.1.3/test/readonly.lua
src/lua-5.1.3/test/sieve.lua
src/lua-5.1.3/test/sort.lua
src/lua-5.1.3/test/table.lua
src/lua-5.1.3/test/trace-calls.lua
src/lua-5.1.3/test/trace-globals.lua
src/lua-5.1.3/test/xd.lua
src/lua/COPYRIGHT
src/lua/HISTORY
src/lua/INSTALL
src/lua/Makefile
src/lua/README
src/lua/doc/amazon.gif
src/lua/doc/contents.html
src/lua/doc/cover.png
src/lua/doc/logo.gif
src/lua/doc/lua.1
src/lua/doc/lua.css
src/lua/doc/lua.html
src/lua/doc/luac.1
src/lua/doc/luac.html
src/lua/doc/manual.css
src/lua/doc/manual.html
src/lua/doc/readme.html
src/lua/etc/Makefile
src/lua/etc/README
src/lua/etc/all.c
src/lua/etc/lua.hpp
src/lua/etc/lua.ico
src/lua/etc/lua.pc
src/lua/etc/luavs.bat
src/lua/etc/min.c
src/lua/etc/noparser.c
src/lua/etc/strict.lua
src/lua/src/Makefile
src/lua/src/lapi.c
src/lua/src/lapi.h
src/lua/src/lauxlib.c
src/lua/src/lauxlib.h
src/lua/src/lbaselib.c
src/lua/src/lcode.c
src/lua/src/lcode.h
src/lua/src/ldblib.c
src/lua/src/ldebug.c
src/lua/src/ldebug.h
src/lua/src/ldo.c
src/lua/src/ldo.h
src/lua/src/ldump.c
src/lua/src/lfunc.c
src/lua/src/lfunc.h
src/lua/src/lgc.c
src/lua/src/lgc.h
src/lua/src/linit.c
src/lua/src/liolib.c
src/lua/src/llex.c
src/lua/src/llex.h
src/lua/src/llimits.h
src/lua/src/lmathlib.c
src/lua/src/lmem.c
src/lua/src/lmem.h
src/lua/src/loadlib.c
src/lua/src/lobject.c
src/lua/src/lobject.h
src/lua/src/lopcodes.c
src/lua/src/lopcodes.h
src/lua/src/loslib.c
src/lua/src/lparser.c
src/lua/src/lparser.h
src/lua/src/lstate.c
src/lua/src/lstate.h
src/lua/src/lstring.c
src/lua/src/lstring.h
src/lua/src/lstrlib.c
src/lua/src/ltable.c
src/lua/src/ltable.h
src/lua/src/ltablib.c
src/lua/src/ltm.c
src/lua/src/ltm.h
src/lua/src/lua.c
src/lua/src/lua.h
src/lua/src/luac.c
src/lua/src/luaconf.h
src/lua/src/lualib.h
src/lua/src/lundump.c
src/lua/src/lundump.h
src/lua/src/lvm.c
src/lua/src/lvm.h
src/lua/src/lzio.c
src/lua/src/lzio.h
src/lua/src/print.c
src/lua/test/README
src/lua/test/bisect.lua
src/lua/test/cf.lua
src/lua/test/echo.lua
src/lua/test/env.lua
src/lua/test/factorial.lua
src/lua/test/fib.lua
src/lua/test/fibfor.lua
src/lua/test/globals.lua
src/lua/test/hello.lua
src/lua/test/life.lua
src/lua/test/luac.lua
src/lua/test/printf.lua
src/lua/test/readonly.lua
src/lua/test/sieve.lua
src/lua/test/sort.lua
src/lua/test/table.lua
src/lua/test/trace-calls.lua
src/lua/test/trace-globals.lua
src/lua/test/xd.lua
--- a/src/CMakeLists.txt	Tue Mar 18 02:15:29 2008 +0000
+++ b/src/CMakeLists.txt	Tue Sep 02 04:22:45 2008 -0400
@@ -9,7 +9,7 @@
 PROJECT(Toby)
 SET(TOBY_VERSION 0.1)
 
-SET(LUA_DIR lua-5.1.3)
+SET(LUA_DIR lua)
 
 # I hate that they define "WIN32" ... we're about to move to Win64...I hope!
 IF(WIN32 AND NOT WINDOWS)
--- a/src/lua-5.1.3/COPYRIGHT	Tue Mar 18 02:15:29 2008 +0000
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,34 +0,0 @@
-Lua License
------------
-
-Lua is licensed under the terms of the MIT license reproduced below.
-This means that Lua is free software and can be used for both academic
-and commercial purposes at absolutely no cost.
-
-For details and rationale, see http://www.lua.org/license.html .
-
-===============================================================================
-
-Copyright (C) 1994-2008 Lua.org, PUC-Rio.
-
-Permission is hereby granted, free of charge, to any person obtaining a copy
-of this software and associated documentation files (the "Software"), to deal
-in the Software without restriction, including without limitation the rights
-to use, copy, modify, merge, publish, distribute, sublicense, and/or sell
-copies of the Software, and to permit persons to whom the Software is
-furnished to do so, subject to the following conditions:
-
-The above copyright notice and this permission notice shall be included in
-all copies or substantial portions of the Software.
-
-THE SOFTWARE IS PROVIDED "AS IS", WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EXPRESS OR
-IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO THE WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY,
-FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE AND NONINFRINGEMENT.  IN NO EVENT SHALL THE
-AUTHORS OR COPYRIGHT HOLDERS BE LIABLE FOR ANY CLAIM, DAMAGES OR OTHER
-LIABILITY, WHETHER IN AN ACTION OF CONTRACT, TORT OR OTHERWISE, ARISING FROM,
-OUT OF OR IN CONNECTION WITH THE SOFTWARE OR THE USE OR OTHER DEALINGS IN
-THE SOFTWARE.
-
-===============================================================================
-
-(end of COPYRIGHT)
--- a/src/lua-5.1.3/HISTORY	Tue Mar 18 02:15:29 2008 +0000
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,183 +0,0 @@
-HISTORY for Lua 5.1
-
-* Changes from version 5.0 to 5.1
-  -------------------------------
-  Language:
-  + new module system.
-  + new semantics for control variables of fors.
-  + new semantics for setn/getn.
-  + new syntax/semantics for varargs.
-  + new long strings and comments.
-  + new `mod' operator (`%')
-  + new length operator #t
-  + metatables for all types
-  API:
-  + new functions: lua_createtable, lua_get(set)field, lua_push(to)integer.
-  + user supplies memory allocator (lua_open becomes lua_newstate).
-  + luaopen_* functions must be called through Lua.
-  Implementation:
-  + new configuration scheme via luaconf.h.
-  + incremental garbage collection.
-  + better handling of end-of-line in the lexer.
-  + fully reentrant parser (new Lua function `load')
-  + better support for 64-bit machines.
-  + native loadlib support for Mac OS X.
-  + standard distribution in only one library (lualib.a merged into lua.a)
-
-* Changes from version 4.0 to 5.0
-  -------------------------------
-  Language:
-  + lexical scoping.
-  + Lua coroutines.
-  + standard libraries now packaged in tables.
-  + tags replaced by metatables and tag methods replaced by metamethods,
-    stored in metatables.
-  + proper tail calls.
-  + each function can have its own global table, which can be shared.
-  + new __newindex metamethod, called when we insert a new key into a table.
-  + new block comments: --[[ ... ]].
-  + new generic for.
-  + new weak tables.
-  + new boolean type.
-  + new syntax "local function".
-  + (f()) returns the first value returned by f.
-  + {f()} fills a table with all values returned by f.
-  + \n ignored in [[\n .
-  + fixed and-or priorities.
-  + more general syntax for function definition (e.g. function a.x.y:f()...end).
-  + more general syntax for function calls (e.g. (print or write)(9)).
-  + new functions (time/date, tmpfile, unpack, require, load*, etc.).
-  API:
-  + chunks are loaded by using lua_load; new luaL_loadfile and luaL_loadbuffer.
-  + introduced lightweight userdata, a simple "void*" without a metatable.
-  + new error handling protocol: the core no longer prints error messages;
-    all errors are reported to the caller on the stack.
-  + new lua_atpanic for host cleanup.
-  + new, signal-safe, hook scheme.
-  Implementation:
-  + new license: MIT.
-  + new, faster, register-based virtual machine.
-  + support for external multithreading and coroutines.
-  + new and consistent error message format.
-  + the core no longer needs "stdio.h" for anything (except for a single
-    use of sprintf to convert numbers to strings).
-  + lua.c now runs the environment variable LUA_INIT, if present. It can
-    be "@filename", to run a file, or the chunk itself.
-  + support for user extensions in lua.c.
-    sample implementation given for command line editing.
-  + new dynamic loading library, active by default on several platforms.
-  + safe garbage-collector metamethods.
-  + precompiled bytecodes checked for integrity (secure binary dostring).
-  + strings are fully aligned.
-  + position capture in string.find.
-  + read('*l') can read lines with embedded zeros.
-
-* Changes from version 3.2 to 4.0
-  -------------------------------
-  Language:
-  + new "break" and "for" statements (both numerical and for tables).
-  + uniform treatment of globals: globals are now stored in a Lua table.
-  + improved error messages.
-  + no more '$debug': full speed *and* full debug information.
-  + new read form: read(N) for next N bytes.
-  + general read patterns now deprecated.
-    (still available with -DCOMPAT_READPATTERNS.)
-  + all return values are passed as arguments for the last function
-    (old semantics still available with -DLUA_COMPAT_ARGRET)
-  + garbage collection tag methods for tables now deprecated.
-  + there is now only one tag method for order.
-  API:
-  + New API: fully re-entrant, simpler, and more efficient.
-  + New debug API.
-  Implementation:
-  + faster than ever: cleaner virtual machine and new hashing algorithm.
-  + non-recursive garbage-collector algorithm.
-  + reduced memory usage for programs with many strings.
-  + improved treatment for memory allocation errors.
-  + improved support for 16-bit machines (we hope).
-  + code now compiles unmodified as both ANSI C and C++.
-  + numbers in bases other than 10 are converted using strtoul.
-  + new -f option in Lua to support #! scripts.
-  + luac can now combine text and binaries.
-
-* Changes from version 3.1 to 3.2
-  -------------------------------
-  + redirected all output in Lua's core to _ERRORMESSAGE and _ALERT.
-  + increased limit on the number of constants and globals per function
-    (from 2^16 to 2^24).
-  + debugging info (lua_debug and hooks) moved into lua_state and new API
-    functions provided to get and set this info.
-  + new debug lib gives full debugging access within Lua.
-  + new table functions "foreachi", "sort", "tinsert", "tremove", "getn".
-  + new io functions "flush", "seek".
-
-* Changes from version 3.0 to 3.1
-  -------------------------------
-  + NEW FEATURE: anonymous functions with closures (via "upvalues").
-  + new syntax:
-    - local variables in chunks.
-    - better scope control with DO block END.
-    - constructors can now be also written: { record-part; list-part }.
-    - more general syntax for function calls and lvalues, e.g.:
-      f(x).y=1
-      o:f(x,y):g(z)
-      f"string" is sugar for f("string")
-  + strings may now contain arbitrary binary data (e.g., embedded zeros).
-  + major code re-organization and clean-up; reduced module interdependecies.
-  + no arbitrary limits on the total number of constants and globals.
-  + support for multiple global contexts.
-  + better syntax error messages.
-  + new traversal functions "foreach" and "foreachvar".
-  + the default for numbers is now double.
-    changing it to use floats or longs is easy.
-  + complete debug information stored in pre-compiled chunks.
-  + sample interpreter now prompts user when run interactively, and also
-    handles control-C interruptions gracefully.
-
-* Changes from version 2.5 to 3.0
-  -------------------------------
-  + NEW CONCEPT: "tag methods".
-    Tag methods replace fallbacks as the meta-mechanism for extending the
-    semantics of Lua. Whereas fallbacks had a global nature, tag methods
-    work on objects having the same tag (e.g., groups of tables).
-    Existing code that uses fallbacks should work without change.
-  + new, general syntax for constructors {[exp] = exp, ... }.
-  + support for handling variable number of arguments in functions (varargs).
-  + support for conditional compilation ($if ... $else ... $end).
-  + cleaner semantics in API simplifies host code.
-  + better support for writing libraries (auxlib.h).
-  + better type checking and error messages in the standard library.
-  + luac can now also undump.
-
-* Changes from version 2.4 to 2.5
-  -------------------------------
-  + io and string libraries are now based on pattern matching;
-    the old libraries are still available for compatibility
-  + dofile and dostring can now return values (via return statement)
-  + better support for 16- and 64-bit machines
-  + expanded documentation, with more examples
-
-* Changes from version 2.2 to 2.4
-  -------------------------------
-  + external compiler creates portable binary files that can be loaded faster
-  + interface for debugging and profiling
-  + new "getglobal" fallback
-  + new functions for handling references to Lua objects
-  + new functions in standard lib
-  + only one copy of each string is stored
-  + expanded documentation, with more examples
-
-* Changes from version 2.1 to 2.2
-  -------------------------------
-  + functions now may be declared with any "lvalue" as a name
-  + garbage collection of functions
-  + support for pipes
-
-* Changes from version 1.1 to 2.1
-  -------------------------------
-  + object-oriented support
-  + fallbacks
-  + simplified syntax for tables
-  + many internal improvements
-
-(end of HISTORY)
--- a/src/lua-5.1.3/INSTALL	Tue Mar 18 02:15:29 2008 +0000
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,99 +0,0 @@
-INSTALL for Lua 5.1
-
-* Building Lua
-  ------------
-  Lua is built in the src directory, but the build process can be
-  controlled from the top-level Makefile.
-
-  Building Lua on Unix systems should be very easy. First do "make" and
-  see if your platform is listed. If so, just do "make xxx", where xxx
-  is your platform name. The platforms currently supported are:
-    aix ansi bsd freebsd generic linux macosx mingw posix solaris
-
-  If your platform is not listed, try the closest one or posix, generic,
-  ansi, in this order.
-
-  See below for customization instructions and for instructions on how
-  to build with other Windows compilers.
-
-  If you want to check that Lua has been built correctly, do "make test"
-  after building Lua. Also, have a look at the example programs in test.
-
-* Installing Lua
-  --------------
-  Once you have built Lua, you may want to install it in an official
-  place in your system. In this case, do "make install". The official
-  place and the way to install files are defined in Makefile. You must
-  have the right permissions to install files.
-
-  If you want to build and install Lua in one step, do "make xxx install",
-  where xxx is your platform name.
-
-  If you want to install Lua locally, then do "make local". This will
-  create directories bin, include, lib, man, and install Lua there as
-  follows:
-
-    bin:	lua luac
-    include:	lua.h luaconf.h lualib.h lauxlib.h lua.hpp
-    lib:	liblua.a
-    man/man1:	lua.1 luac.1
-
-  These are the only directories you need for development.
-
-  There are man pages for lua and luac, in both nroff and html, and a
-  reference manual in html in doc, some sample code in test, and some
-  useful stuff in etc. You don't need these directories for development.
-
-  If you want to install Lua locally, but in some other directory, do
-  "make install INSTALL_TOP=xxx", where xxx is your chosen directory.
-
-  See below for instructions for Windows and other systems.
-
-* Customization
-  -------------
-  Three things can be customized by editing a file:
-    - Where and how to install Lua -- edit Makefile.
-    - How to build Lua -- edit src/Makefile.
-    - Lua features -- edit src/luaconf.h.
-
-  You don't actually need to edit the Makefiles because you may set the
-  relevant variables when invoking make.
-
-  On the other hand, if you need to select some Lua features, you'll need
-  to edit src/luaconf.h. The edited file will be the one installed, and
-  it will be used by any Lua clients that you build, to ensure consistency.
-
-  We strongly recommend that you enable dynamic loading. This is done
-  automatically for all platforms listed above that have this feature
-  (and also Windows). See src/luaconf.h and also src/Makefile.
-
-* Building Lua on Windows and other systems
-  -----------------------------------------
-  If you're not using the usual Unix tools, then the instructions for
-  building Lua depend on the compiler you use. You'll need to create
-  projects (or whatever your compiler uses) for building the library,
-  the interpreter, and the compiler, as follows:
-
-  library:	lapi.c lcode.c ldebug.c ldo.c ldump.c lfunc.c lgc.c llex.c
-		lmem.c lobject.c lopcodes.c lparser.c lstate.c lstring.c
-		ltable.c ltm.c lundump.c lvm.c lzio.c
-		lauxlib.c lbaselib.c ldblib.c liolib.c lmathlib.c loslib.c
-		ltablib.c lstrlib.c loadlib.c linit.c
-
-  interpreter:	library, lua.c
-
-  compiler:	library, luac.c print.c
-
-  If you use Visual Studio .NET, you can use etc/luavs.bat in its
-  "Command Prompt".
-
-  If all you want is to build the Lua interpreter, you may put all .c files
-  in a single project, except for luac.c and print.c. Or just use etc/all.c.
-
-  To use Lua as a library in your own programs, you'll need to know how to
-  create and use libraries with your compiler.
-
-  As mentioned above, you may edit luaconf.h to select some features before
-  building Lua.
-
-(end of INSTALL)
--- a/src/lua-5.1.3/Makefile	Tue Mar 18 02:15:29 2008 +0000
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,120 +0,0 @@
-# makefile for installing Lua
-# see INSTALL for installation instructions
-# see src/Makefile and src/luaconf.h for further customization
-
-# == CHANGE THE SETTINGS BELOW TO SUIT YOUR ENVIRONMENT =======================
-
-# Your platform. See PLATS for possible values.
-PLAT= none
-
-# Where to install. The installation starts in the src directory, so take care
-# if INSTALL_TOP is not an absolute path. (Man pages are installed from the
-# doc directory.) You may want to make these paths consistent with LUA_ROOT,
-# LUA_LDIR, and LUA_CDIR in luaconf.h (and also with etc/lua.pc).
-#
-INSTALL_TOP= /usr/local
-INSTALL_BIN= $(INSTALL_TOP)/bin
-INSTALL_INC= $(INSTALL_TOP)/include
-INSTALL_LIB= $(INSTALL_TOP)/lib
-INSTALL_MAN= $(INSTALL_TOP)/man/man1
-INSTALL_LMOD= $(INSTALL_TOP)/share/lua/$V
-INSTALL_CMOD= $(INSTALL_TOP)/lib/lua/$V
-
-# How to install. If you don't have "install" (unlikely) then get install-sh at
-#	http://dev.w3.org/cvsweb/libwww/config/install-sh
-# or use cp instead.
-INSTALL_EXEC= $(INSTALL) -p -m 0755
-INSTALL_DATA= $(INSTALL) -p -m 0644
-
-# Utilities.
-INSTALL= install
-MKDIR= mkdir
-
-# == END OF USER SETTINGS. NO NEED TO CHANGE ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE =========
-
-# Convenience platforms targets.
-PLATS= aix ansi bsd freebsd generic linux macosx mingw posix solaris
-
-# What to install.
-TO_BIN= lua luac
-TO_INC= lua.h luaconf.h lualib.h lauxlib.h ../etc/lua.hpp
-TO_LIB= liblua.a
-TO_MAN= lua.1 luac.1
-
-# Lua version and release.
-V= 5.1
-R= 5.1.3
-
-all:	$(PLAT)
-
-$(PLATS) clean:
-	cd src && $(MAKE) $@
-
-test:	dummy
-	src/lua test/hello.lua
-
-install: dummy
-	cd src && $(MKDIR) -p $(INSTALL_BIN) $(INSTALL_INC) $(INSTALL_LIB) $(INSTALL_MAN) $(INSTALL_LMOD) $(INSTALL_CMOD)
-	cd src && $(INSTALL_EXEC) $(TO_BIN) $(INSTALL_BIN)
-	cd src && $(INSTALL_DATA) $(TO_INC) $(INSTALL_INC)
-	cd src && $(INSTALL_DATA) $(TO_LIB) $(INSTALL_LIB)
-	cd doc && $(INSTALL_DATA) $(TO_MAN) $(INSTALL_MAN)
-
-local:
-	$(MAKE) install INSTALL_TOP=..
-
-none:
-	@echo "Please do"
-	@echo "   make PLATFORM"
-	@echo "where PLATFORM is one of these:"
-	@echo "   $(PLATS)"
-	@echo "See INSTALL for complete instructions."
-
-# make may get confused with test/ and INSTALL in a case-insensitive OS
-dummy:
-
-# echo config parameters
-echo:
-	@echo ""
-	@echo "These are the parameters currently set in src/Makefile to build Lua $R:"
-	@echo ""
-	@cd src && $(MAKE) -s echo
-	@echo ""
-	@echo "These are the parameters currently set in Makefile to install Lua $R:"
-	@echo ""
-	@echo "PLAT = $(PLAT)"
-	@echo "INSTALL_TOP = $(INSTALL_TOP)"
-	@echo "INSTALL_BIN = $(INSTALL_BIN)"
-	@echo "INSTALL_INC = $(INSTALL_INC)"
-	@echo "INSTALL_LIB = $(INSTALL_LIB)"
-	@echo "INSTALL_MAN = $(INSTALL_MAN)"
-	@echo "INSTALL_LMOD = $(INSTALL_LMOD)"
-	@echo "INSTALL_CMOD = $(INSTALL_CMOD)"
-	@echo "INSTALL_EXEC = $(INSTALL_EXEC)"
-	@echo "INSTALL_DATA = $(INSTALL_DATA)"
-	@echo ""
-	@echo "See also src/luaconf.h ."
-	@echo ""
-
-# echo private config parameters
-pecho:
-	@echo "V = $(V)"
-	@echo "R = $(R)"
-	@echo "TO_BIN = $(TO_BIN)"
-	@echo "TO_INC = $(TO_INC)"
-	@echo "TO_LIB = $(TO_LIB)"
-	@echo "TO_MAN = $(TO_MAN)"
-
-# echo config parameters as Lua code
-# uncomment the last sed expression if you want nil instead of empty strings
-lecho:
-	@echo "-- installation parameters for Lua $R"
-	@echo "VERSION = '$V'"
-	@echo "RELEASE = '$R'"
-	@$(MAKE) echo | grep = | sed -e 's/= /= "/' -e 's/$$/"/' #-e 's/""/nil/'
-	@echo "-- EOF"
-
-# list targets that do not create files (but not all makes understand .PHONY)
-.PHONY: all $(PLATS) clean test install local none dummy echo pecho lecho
-
-# (end of Makefile)
--- a/src/lua-5.1.3/README	Tue Mar 18 02:15:29 2008 +0000
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,37 +0,0 @@
-README for Lua 5.1
-
-See INSTALL for installation instructions.
-See HISTORY for a summary of changes since the last released version.
-
-* What is Lua?
-  ------------
-  Lua is a powerful, light-weight programming language designed for extending
-  applications. Lua is also frequently used as a general-purpose, stand-alone
-  language. Lua is free software.
-
-  For complete information, visit Lua's web site at http://www.lua.org/ .
-  For an executive summary, see http://www.lua.org/about.html .
-
-  Lua has been used in many different projects around the world.
-  For a short list, see http://www.lua.org/uses.html .
-
-* Availability
-  ------------
-  Lua is freely available for both academic and commercial purposes.
-  See COPYRIGHT and http://www.lua.org/license.html for details.
-  Lua can be downloaded at http://www.lua.org/download.html .
-
-* Installation
-  ------------
-  Lua is implemented in pure ANSI C, and compiles unmodified in all known
-  platforms that have an ANSI C compiler. In most Unix-like platforms, simply
-  do "make" with a suitable target. See INSTALL for detailed instructions.
-
-* Origin
-  ------
-  Lua is developed at Lua.org, a laboratory of the Department of Computer
-  Science of PUC-Rio (the Pontifical Catholic University of Rio de Janeiro
-  in Brazil).
-  For more information about the authors, see http://www.lua.org/authors.html .
-
-(end of README)
Binary file src/lua-5.1.3/doc/amazon.gif has changed
--- a/src/lua-5.1.3/doc/contents.html	Tue Mar 18 02:15:29 2008 +0000
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,499 +0,0 @@
-<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">
-<HTML>
-<HEAD>
-<TITLE>Lua 5.1 Reference Manual - contents</TITLE>
-<LINK REL="stylesheet" TYPE="text/css" HREF="lua.css">
-<META HTTP-EQUIV="content-type" CONTENT="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1">
-<STYLE TYPE="text/css">
-ul {
-	list-style-type: none ;
-	list-style-position: outside ;
-}
-</STYLE>
-</HEAD>
-
-<BODY>
-
-<HR>
-<H1>
-<A HREF="http://www.lua.org/"><IMG SRC="logo.gif" ALT="" BORDER=0></A>
-Lua 5.1 Reference Manual
-</H1>
-
-This is an online version of
-<BLOCKQUOTE>
-<A HREF="http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/8590379833/lua-indexmanual-20">
-<IMG SRC="cover.png" ALT="" TITLE="buy from Amazon" BORDER=1 ALIGN="left" HSPACE=12>
-</A>
-<B>Lua 5.1 Reference Manual</B>
-<BR>by R. Ierusalimschy, L. H. de Figueiredo, W. Celes
-<BR>Lua.org, August 2006
-<BR>ISBN 85-903798-3-3
-<BR><A HREF="http://www.amazon.com/exec/obidos/ASIN/8590379833/lua-indexmanual-20">
-<IMG SRC="amazon.gif" ALT="[Buy from Amazon]" BORDER=0></A>
-<BR CLEAR="all">
-</BLOCKQUOTE>
-<P>
-
-Buy a copy of this book and 
-<A HREF="http://www.lua.org/donations.html">help to support</A>
-the Lua project.
-<P>
-
-The reference manual is the official definition of the Lua language.
-For a complete introduction to Lua programming, see the book
-<A HREF="http://www.lua.org/docs.html#books">Programming in Lua</A>.
-<P>
-
-<A HREF="manual.html">start</A>
-&middot;
-<A HREF="#contents">contents</A>
-&middot;
-<A HREF="#index">index</A>
-&middot;
-<A HREF="http://www.lua.org/manual/5.1/pt/">portuguÍs</A>
-&middot;
-<A HREF="http://www.lua.org/manual/5.1/es/">espaŮol</A>
-<HR>
-<SMALL>
-Copyright &copy; 2006-2008 Lua.org, PUC-Rio.
-Freely available under the terms of the
-<a href="http://www.lua.org/license.html#5">Lua license</a>.
-</SMALL>
-<P>
-
-<H2><A NAME="contents">Contents</A></H2>
-<UL style="padding: 0">
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html">1 - Introduction</A>
-<P>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2">2 - The Language</A>
-<UL>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.1">2.1 - Lexical Conventions</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.2">2.2 - Values and Types</A>
-<UL>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.2.1">2.2.1 - Coercion</A>
-</UL>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.3">2.3 - Variables</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.4">2.4 - Statements</A>
-<UL>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.4.1">2.4.1 - Chunks</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.4.2">2.4.2 - Blocks</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.4.3">2.4.3 - Assignment</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.4.4">2.4.4 - Control Structures</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.4.5">2.4.5 - For Statement</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.4.6">2.4.6 - Function Calls as Statements</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.4.7">2.4.7 - Local Declarations</A>
-</UL>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.5">2.5 - Expressions</A>
-<UL>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.5.1">2.5.1 - Arithmetic Operators</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.5.2">2.5.2 - Relational Operators</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.5.3">2.5.3 - Logical Operators</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.5.4">2.5.4 - Concatenation</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.5.5">2.5.5 - The Length Operator</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.5.6">2.5.6 - Precedence</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.5.7">2.5.7 - Table Constructors</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.5.8">2.5.8 - Function Calls</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.5.9">2.5.9 - Function Definitions</A>
-</UL>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.6">2.6 - Visibility Rules</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.7">2.7 - Error Handling</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.8">2.8 - Metatables</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.9">2.9 - Environments</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.10">2.10 - Garbage Collection</A>
-<UL>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.10.1">2.10.1 - Garbage-Collection Metamethods</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.10.2">2.10.2 - Weak Tables</A>
-</UL>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#2.11">2.11 - Coroutines</A>
-</UL>
-<P>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3">3 - The Application Program Interface</A>
-<UL>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.1">3.1 - The Stack</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.2">3.2 - Stack Size</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.3">3.3 - Pseudo-Indices</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.4">3.4 - C Closures</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.5">3.5 - Registry</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.6">3.6 - Error Handling in C</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.7">3.7 - Functions and Types</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#3.8">3.8 - The Debug Interface</A>
-</UL>
-<P>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#4">4 - The Auxiliary Library</A>
-<UL>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#4.1">4.1 - Functions and Types</A>
-</UL>
-<P>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#5">5 - Standard Libraries</A>
-<UL>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#5.1">5.1 - Basic Functions</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#5.2">5.2 - Coroutine Manipulation</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#5.3">5.3 - Modules</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#5.4">5.4 - String Manipulation</A>
-<UL>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#5.4.1">5.4.1 - Patterns</A>
-</UL>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#5.5">5.5 - Table Manipulation</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#5.6">5.6 - Mathematical Functions</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#5.7">5.7 - Input and Output Facilities</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#5.8">5.8 - Operating System Facilities</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#5.9">5.9 - The Debug Library</A>
-</UL>
-<P>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#6">6 - Lua Stand-alone</A>
-<P>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#7">7 - Incompatibilities with the Previous Version</A>
-<UL>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#7.1">7.1 - Changes in the Language</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#7.2">7.2 - Changes in the Libraries</A>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#7.3">7.3 - Changes in the API</A>
-</UL>
-<P>
-<LI><A HREF="manual.html#8">8 - The Complete Syntax of Lua</A>
-</UL>
-
-<H2><A NAME="index">Index</A></H2>
-<TABLE WIDTH="100%">
-<TR VALIGN="top">
-<TD>
-<H3><A NAME="functions">Lua functions</A></H3>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-_G">_G</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-_VERSION">_VERSION</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-assert">assert</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-collectgarbage">collectgarbage</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-dofile">dofile</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-error">error</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-getfenv">getfenv</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-getmetatable">getmetatable</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-ipairs">ipairs</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-load">load</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-loadfile">loadfile</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-loadstring">loadstring</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-module">module</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-next">next</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-pairs">pairs</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-pcall">pcall</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-print">print</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-rawequal">rawequal</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-rawget">rawget</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-rawset">rawset</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-require">require</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-select">select</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-setfenv">setfenv</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-setmetatable">setmetatable</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-tonumber">tonumber</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-tostring">tostring</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-type">type</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-unpack">unpack</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-xpcall">xpcall</A><BR>
-<P>
-
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-coroutine.create">coroutine.create</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-coroutine.resume">coroutine.resume</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-coroutine.running">coroutine.running</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-coroutine.status">coroutine.status</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-coroutine.wrap">coroutine.wrap</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-coroutine.yield">coroutine.yield</A><BR>
-<P>
-
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-debug.debug">debug.debug</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-debug.getfenv">debug.getfenv</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-debug.gethook">debug.gethook</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-debug.getinfo">debug.getinfo</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-debug.getlocal">debug.getlocal</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-debug.getmetatable">debug.getmetatable</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-debug.getregistry">debug.getregistry</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-debug.getupvalue">debug.getupvalue</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-debug.setfenv">debug.setfenv</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-debug.sethook">debug.sethook</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-debug.setlocal">debug.setlocal</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-debug.setmetatable">debug.setmetatable</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-debug.setupvalue">debug.setupvalue</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-debug.traceback">debug.traceback</A><BR>
-
-</TD>
-<TD>
-<H3>&nbsp;</H3>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-file:close">file:close</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-file:flush">file:flush</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-file:lines">file:lines</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-file:read">file:read</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-file:seek">file:seek</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-file:setvbuf">file:setvbuf</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-file:write">file:write</A><BR>
-<P>
-
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-io.close">io.close</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-io.flush">io.flush</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-io.input">io.input</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-io.lines">io.lines</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-io.open">io.open</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-io.output">io.output</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-io.popen">io.popen</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-io.read">io.read</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-io.stderr">io.stderr</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-io.stdin">io.stdin</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-io.stdout">io.stdout</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-io.tmpfile">io.tmpfile</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-io.type">io.type</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-io.write">io.write</A><BR>
-<P>
-
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.abs">math.abs</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.acos">math.acos</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.asin">math.asin</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.atan">math.atan</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.atan2">math.atan2</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.ceil">math.ceil</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.cos">math.cos</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.cosh">math.cosh</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.deg">math.deg</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.exp">math.exp</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.floor">math.floor</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.fmod">math.fmod</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.frexp">math.frexp</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.huge">math.huge</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.ldexp">math.ldexp</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.log">math.log</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.log10">math.log10</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.max">math.max</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.min">math.min</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.modf">math.modf</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.pi">math.pi</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.pow">math.pow</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.rad">math.rad</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.random">math.random</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.randomseed">math.randomseed</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.sin">math.sin</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.sinh">math.sinh</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.sqrt">math.sqrt</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.tan">math.tan</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-math.tanh">math.tanh</A><BR>
-<P>
-
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-os.clock">os.clock</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-os.date">os.date</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-os.difftime">os.difftime</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-os.execute">os.execute</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-os.exit">os.exit</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-os.getenv">os.getenv</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-os.remove">os.remove</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-os.rename">os.rename</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-os.setlocale">os.setlocale</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-os.time">os.time</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-os.tmpname">os.tmpname</A><BR>
-<P>
-
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-package.cpath">package.cpath</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-package.loaded">package.loaded</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-package.loaders">package.loaders</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-package.loadlib">package.loadlib</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-package.path">package.path</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-package.preload">package.preload</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-package.seeall">package.seeall</A><BR>
-<P>
-
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-string.byte">string.byte</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-string.char">string.char</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-string.dump">string.dump</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-string.find">string.find</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-string.format">string.format</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-string.gmatch">string.gmatch</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-string.gsub">string.gsub</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-string.len">string.len</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-string.lower">string.lower</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-string.match">string.match</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-string.rep">string.rep</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-string.reverse">string.reverse</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-string.sub">string.sub</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-string.upper">string.upper</A><BR>
-<P>
-
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-table.concat">table.concat</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-table.insert">table.insert</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-table.maxn">table.maxn</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-table.remove">table.remove</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#pdf-table.sort">table.sort</A><BR>
-
-</TD>
-<TD>
-<H3>C API</H3>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_Alloc">lua_Alloc</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_CFunction">lua_CFunction</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_Debug">lua_Debug</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_Hook">lua_Hook</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_Integer">lua_Integer</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_Number">lua_Number</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_Reader">lua_Reader</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_State">lua_State</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_Writer">lua_Writer</A><BR>
-<P>
-
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_atpanic">lua_atpanic</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_call">lua_call</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_checkstack">lua_checkstack</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_close">lua_close</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_concat">lua_concat</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_cpcall">lua_cpcall</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_createtable">lua_createtable</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_dump">lua_dump</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_equal">lua_equal</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_error">lua_error</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_gc">lua_gc</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_getallocf">lua_getallocf</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_getfenv">lua_getfenv</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_getfield">lua_getfield</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_getglobal">lua_getglobal</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_gethook">lua_gethook</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_gethookcount">lua_gethookcount</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_gethookmask">lua_gethookmask</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_getinfo">lua_getinfo</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_getlocal">lua_getlocal</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_getmetatable">lua_getmetatable</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_getstack">lua_getstack</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_gettable">lua_gettable</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_gettop">lua_gettop</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_getupvalue">lua_getupvalue</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_insert">lua_insert</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_isboolean">lua_isboolean</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_iscfunction">lua_iscfunction</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_isfunction">lua_isfunction</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_islightuserdata">lua_islightuserdata</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_isnil">lua_isnil</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_isnone">lua_isnone</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_isnoneornil">lua_isnoneornil</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_isnumber">lua_isnumber</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_isstring">lua_isstring</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_istable">lua_istable</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_isthread">lua_isthread</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_isuserdata">lua_isuserdata</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_lessthan">lua_lessthan</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_load">lua_load</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_newstate">lua_newstate</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_newtable">lua_newtable</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_newthread">lua_newthread</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_newuserdata">lua_newuserdata</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_next">lua_next</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_objlen">lua_objlen</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_pcall">lua_pcall</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_pop">lua_pop</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_pushboolean">lua_pushboolean</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_pushcclosure">lua_pushcclosure</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_pushcfunction">lua_pushcfunction</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_pushfstring">lua_pushfstring</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_pushinteger">lua_pushinteger</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_pushlightuserdata">lua_pushlightuserdata</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_pushliteral">lua_pushliteral</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_pushlstring">lua_pushlstring</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_pushnil">lua_pushnil</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_pushnumber">lua_pushnumber</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_pushstring">lua_pushstring</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_pushthread">lua_pushthread</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_pushvalue">lua_pushvalue</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_pushvfstring">lua_pushvfstring</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_rawequal">lua_rawequal</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_rawget">lua_rawget</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_rawgeti">lua_rawgeti</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_rawset">lua_rawset</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_rawseti">lua_rawseti</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_register">lua_register</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_remove">lua_remove</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_replace">lua_replace</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_resume">lua_resume</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_setallocf">lua_setallocf</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_setfenv">lua_setfenv</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_setfield">lua_setfield</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_setglobal">lua_setglobal</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_sethook">lua_sethook</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_setlocal">lua_setlocal</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_setmetatable">lua_setmetatable</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_settable">lua_settable</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_settop">lua_settop</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_setupvalue">lua_setupvalue</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_status">lua_status</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_toboolean">lua_toboolean</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_tocfunction">lua_tocfunction</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_tointeger">lua_tointeger</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_tolstring">lua_tolstring</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_tonumber">lua_tonumber</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_topointer">lua_topointer</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_tostring">lua_tostring</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_tothread">lua_tothread</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_touserdata">lua_touserdata</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_type">lua_type</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_typename">lua_typename</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_upvalueindex">lua_upvalueindex</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_xmove">lua_xmove</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#lua_yield">lua_yield</A><BR>
-
-</TD>
-<TD>
-<H3>auxiliary library</H3>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_Buffer">luaL_Buffer</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_Reg">luaL_Reg</A><BR>
-<P>
-
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_addchar">luaL_addchar</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_addlstring">luaL_addlstring</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_addsize">luaL_addsize</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_addstring">luaL_addstring</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_addvalue">luaL_addvalue</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_argcheck">luaL_argcheck</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_argerror">luaL_argerror</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_buffinit">luaL_buffinit</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_callmeta">luaL_callmeta</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_checkany">luaL_checkany</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_checkint">luaL_checkint</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_checkinteger">luaL_checkinteger</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_checklong">luaL_checklong</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_checklstring">luaL_checklstring</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_checknumber">luaL_checknumber</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_checkoption">luaL_checkoption</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_checkstack">luaL_checkstack</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_checkstring">luaL_checkstring</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_checktype">luaL_checktype</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_checkudata">luaL_checkudata</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_dofile">luaL_dofile</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_dostring">luaL_dostring</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_error">luaL_error</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_getmetafield">luaL_getmetafield</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_getmetatable">luaL_getmetatable</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_gsub">luaL_gsub</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_loadbuffer">luaL_loadbuffer</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_loadfile">luaL_loadfile</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_loadstring">luaL_loadstring</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_newmetatable">luaL_newmetatable</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_newstate">luaL_newstate</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_openlibs">luaL_openlibs</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_optint">luaL_optint</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_optinteger">luaL_optinteger</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_optlong">luaL_optlong</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_optlstring">luaL_optlstring</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_optnumber">luaL_optnumber</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_optstring">luaL_optstring</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_prepbuffer">luaL_prepbuffer</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_pushresult">luaL_pushresult</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_ref">luaL_ref</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_register">luaL_register</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_typename">luaL_typename</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_typerror">luaL_typerror</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_unref">luaL_unref</A><BR>
-<A HREF="manual.html#luaL_where">luaL_where</A><BR>
-
-</TD>
-</TR>
-</TABLE>
-<P>
-
-<HR>
-<SMALL>
-Last update:
-Sat Jan 19 13:24:29 BRST 2008
-</SMALL>
-<!--
-Last change: revised for Lua 5.1.3
--->
-
-</BODY>
-</HTML>
Binary file src/lua-5.1.3/doc/cover.png has changed
Binary file src/lua-5.1.3/doc/logo.gif has changed
--- a/src/lua-5.1.3/doc/lua.1	Tue Mar 18 02:15:29 2008 +0000
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,163 +0,0 @@
-.\" $Id: lua.man,v 1.11 2006/01/06 16:03:34 lhf Exp $
-.TH LUA 1 "$Date: 2006/01/06 16:03:34 $"
-.SH NAME
-lua \- Lua interpreter
-.SH SYNOPSIS
-.B lua
-[
-.I options
-]
-[
-.I script
-[
-.I args
-]
-]
-.SH DESCRIPTION
-.B lua
-is the stand-alone Lua interpreter.
-It loads and executes Lua programs,
-either in textual source form or
-in precompiled binary form.
-(Precompiled binaries are output by
-.BR luac ,
-the Lua compiler.)
-.B lua
-can be used as a batch interpreter and also interactively.
-.LP
-The given
-.I options
-(see below)
-are executed and then
-the Lua program in file
-.I script
-is loaded and executed.
-The given
-.I args
-are available to
-.I script
-as strings in a global table named
-.BR arg .
-If these arguments contain spaces or other characters special to the shell,
-then they should be quoted
-(but note that the quotes will be removed by the shell).
-The arguments in
-.B arg
-start at 0,
-which contains the string
-.RI ' script '.
-The index of the last argument is stored in
-.BR arg.n .
-The arguments given in the command line before
-.IR script ,
-including the name of the interpreter,
-are available in negative indices in
-.BR arg .
-.LP
-At the very start,
-before even handling the command line,
-.B lua
-executes the contents of the environment variable
-.BR LUA_INIT ,
-if it is defined.
-If the value of
-.B LUA_INIT
-is of the form
-.RI '@ filename ',
-then
-.I filename
-is executed.
-Otherwise, the string is assumed to be a Lua statement and is executed.
-.LP
-Options start with
-.B '\-'
-and are described below.
-You can use
-.B "'\--'"
-to signal the end of options.
-.LP
-If no arguments are given,
-then
-.B "\-v \-i"
-is assumed when the standard input is a terminal;
-otherwise,
-.B "\-"
-is assumed.
-.LP
-In interactive mode,
-.B lua
-prompts the user,
-reads lines from the standard input,
-and executes them as they are read.
-If a line does not contain a complete statement,
-then a secondary prompt is displayed and
-lines are read until a complete statement is formed or
-a syntax error is found.
-So, one way to interrupt the reading of an incomplete statement is
-to force a syntax error:
-adding a
-.B ';' 
-in the middle of a statement is a sure way of forcing a syntax error
-(except inside multiline strings and comments; these must be closed explicitly).
-If a line starts with
-.BR '=' ,
-then
-.B lua
-displays the values of all the expressions in the remainder of the
-line. The expressions must be separated by commas.
-The primary prompt is the value of the global variable
-.BR _PROMPT ,
-if this value is a string;
-otherwise, the default prompt is used.
-Similarly, the secondary prompt is the value of the global variable
-.BR _PROMPT2 .
-So,
-to change the prompts,
-set the corresponding variable to a string of your choice.
-You can do that after calling the interpreter
-or on the command line
-(but in this case you have to be careful with quotes
-if the prompt string contains a space; otherwise you may confuse the shell.)
-The default prompts are "> " and ">> ".
-.SH OPTIONS
-.TP
-.B \-
-load and execute the standard input as a file,
-that is,
-not interactively,
-even when the standard input is a terminal.
-.TP
-.BI \-e " stat"
-execute statement
-.IR stat .
-You need to quote
-.I stat 
-if it contains spaces, quotes,
-or other characters special to the shell.
-.TP
-.B \-i
-enter interactive mode after
-.I script
-is executed.
-.TP
-.BI \-l " name"
-call
-.BI require(' name ')
-before executing
-.IR script .
-Typically used to load libraries.
-.TP
-.B \-v
-show version information.
-.SH "SEE ALSO"
-.BR luac (1)
-.br
-http://www.lua.org/
-.SH DIAGNOSTICS
-Error messages should be self explanatory.
-.SH AUTHORS
-R. Ierusalimschy,
-L. H. de Figueiredo,
-and
-W. Celes
-.\" EOF
--- a/src/lua-5.1.3/doc/lua.css	Tue Mar 18 02:15:29 2008 +0000
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,41 +0,0 @@
-body {
-	color: #000000 ;
-	background-color: #FFFFFF ;
-	font-family: sans-serif ;
-	text-align: justify ;
-	margin-right: 20px ;
-	margin-left: 20px ;
-}
-
-h1, h2, h3, h4 {
-	font-weight: normal ;
-	font-style: italic ;
-}
-
-a:link {
-	color: #000080 ;
-	background-color: inherit ;
-	text-decoration: none ;
-}
-
-a:visited {
-	background-color: inherit ;
-	text-decoration: none ;
-}
-
-a:link:hover, a:visited:hover {
-	color: #000080 ;
-	background-color: #E0E0FF ;
-}
-
-a:link:active, a:visited:active {
-	color: #FF0000 ;
-}
-
-hr {
-	border: 0 ;
-	height: 1px ;
-	color: #a0a0a0 ;
-	background-color: #a0a0a0 ;
-}
-
--- a/src/lua-5.1.3/doc/lua.html	Tue Mar 18 02:15:29 2008 +0000
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,172 +0,0 @@
-<!-- $Id: lua.man,v 1.11 2006/01/06 16:03:34 lhf Exp $ -->
-<HTML>
-<HEAD>
-<TITLE>LUA man page</TITLE>
-<LINK REL="stylesheet" TYPE="text/css" HREF="lua.css">
-</HEAD>
-
-<BODY BGCOLOR="#FFFFFF">
-
-<H2>NAME</H2>
-lua - Lua interpreter
-<H2>SYNOPSIS</H2>
-<B>lua</B>
-[
-<I>options</I>
-]
-[
-<I>script</I>
-[
-<I>args</I>
-]
-]
-<H2>DESCRIPTION</H2>
-<B>lua</B>
-is the stand-alone Lua interpreter.
-It loads and executes Lua programs,
-either in textual source form or
-in precompiled binary form.
-(Precompiled binaries are output by
-<B>luac</B>,
-the Lua compiler.)
-<B>lua</B>
-can be used as a batch interpreter and also interactively.
-<P>
-The given
-<I>options</I>
-(see below)
-are executed and then
-the Lua program in file
-<I>script</I>
-is loaded and executed.
-The given
-<I>args</I>
-are available to
-<I>script</I>
-as strings in a global table named
-<B>arg</B>.
-If these arguments contain spaces or other characters special to the shell,
-then they should be quoted
-(but note that the quotes will be removed by the shell).
-The arguments in
-<B>arg</B>
-start at 0,
-which contains the string
-'<I>script</I>'.
-The index of the last argument is stored in
-<B>arg.n</B>.
-The arguments given in the command line before
-<I>script</I>,
-including the name of the interpreter,
-are available in negative indices in
-<B>arg</B>.
-<P>
-At the very start,
-before even handling the command line,
-<B>lua</B>
-executes the contents of the environment variable
-<B>LUA_INIT</B>,
-if it is defined.
-If the value of
-<B>LUA_INIT</B>
-is of the form
-'@<I>filename</I>',
-then
-<I>filename</I>
-is executed.
-Otherwise, the string is assumed to be a Lua statement and is executed.
-<P>
-Options start with
-<B>'-'</B>
-and are described below.
-You can use
-<B>'--'</B>
-to signal the end of options.
-<P>
-If no arguments are given,
-then
-<B>"-v -i"</B>
-is assumed when the standard input is a terminal;
-otherwise,
-<B>"-"</B>
-is assumed.
-<P>
-In interactive mode,
-<B>lua</B>
-prompts the user,
-reads lines from the standard input,
-and executes them as they are read.
-If a line does not contain a complete statement,
-then a secondary prompt is displayed and
-lines are read until a complete statement is formed or
-a syntax error is found.
-So, one way to interrupt the reading of an incomplete statement is
-to force a syntax error:
-adding a
-<B>';'</B>
-in the middle of a statement is a sure way of forcing a syntax error
-(except inside multiline strings and comments; these must be closed explicitly).
-If a line starts with
-<B>'='</B>,
-then
-<B>lua</B>
-displays the values of all the expressions in the remainder of the
-line. The expressions must be separated by commas.
-The primary prompt is the value of the global variable
-<B>_PROMPT</B>,
-if this value is a string;
-otherwise, the default prompt is used.
-Similarly, the secondary prompt is the value of the global variable
-<B>_PROMPT2</B>.
-So,
-to change the prompts,
-set the corresponding variable to a string of your choice.
-You can do that after calling the interpreter
-or on the command line
-(but in this case you have to be careful with quotes
-if the prompt string contains a space; otherwise you may confuse the shell.)
-The default prompts are "&gt; " and "&gt;&gt; ".
-<H2>OPTIONS</H2>
-<P>
-<B>-</B>
-load and execute the standard input as a file,
-that is,
-not interactively,
-even when the standard input is a terminal.
-<P>
-<B>-e </B><I>stat</I>
-execute statement
-<I>stat</I>.
-You need to quote
-<I>stat </I>
-if it contains spaces, quotes,
-or other characters special to the shell.
-<P>
-<B>-i</B>
-enter interactive mode after
-<I>script</I>
-is executed.
-<P>
-<B>-l </B><I>name</I>
-call
-<B>require</B>('<I>name</I>')
-before executing
-<I>script</I>.
-Typically used to load libraries.
-<P>
-<B>-v</B>
-show version information.
-<H2>SEE ALSO</H2>
-<B>luac</B>(1)
-<BR>
-<A HREF="http://www.lua.org/">http://www.lua.org/</A>
-<H2>DIAGNOSTICS</H2>
-Error messages should be self explanatory.
-<H2>AUTHORS</H2>
-R. Ierusalimschy,
-L. H. de Figueiredo,
-and
-W. Celes
-<!-- EOF -->
-</BODY>
-</HTML>
--- a/src/lua-5.1.3/doc/luac.1	Tue Mar 18 02:15:29 2008 +0000
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,136 +0,0 @@
-.\" $Id: luac.man,v 1.28 2006/01/06 16:03:34 lhf Exp $
-.TH LUAC 1 "$Date: 2006/01/06 16:03:34 $"
-.SH NAME
-luac \- Lua compiler
-.SH SYNOPSIS
-.B luac
-[
-.I options
-] [
-.I filenames
-]
-.SH DESCRIPTION
-.B luac
-is the Lua compiler.
-It translates programs written in the Lua programming language
-into binary files that can be later loaded and executed.
-.LP
-The main advantages of precompiling chunks are:
-faster loading,
-protecting source code from accidental user changes,
-and
-off-line syntax checking.
-.LP
-Pre-compiling does not imply faster execution
-because in Lua chunks are always compiled into bytecodes before being executed.
-.B luac
-simply allows those bytecodes to be saved in a file for later execution.
-.LP
-Pre-compiled chunks are not necessarily smaller than the corresponding source.
-The main goal in pre-compiling is faster loading.
-.LP
-The binary files created by
-.B luac
-are portable only among architectures with the same word size and byte order.
-.LP
-.B luac
-produces a single output file containing the bytecodes
-for all source files given.
-By default,
-the output file is named
-.BR luac.out ,
-but you can change this with the
-.B \-o
-option.
-.LP
-In the command line,
-you can mix
-text files containing Lua source and
-binary files containing precompiled chunks.
-This is useful to combine several precompiled chunks,
-even from different (but compatible) platforms,
-into a single precompiled chunk.
-.LP
-You can use
-.B "'\-'"
-to indicate the standard input as a source file
-and
-.B "'\--'"
-to signal the end of options
-(that is,
-all remaining arguments will be treated as files even if they start with
-.BR "'\-'" ).
-.LP
-The internal format of the binary files produced by
-.B luac
-is likely to change when a new version of Lua is released.
-So,
-save the source files of all Lua programs that you precompile.
-.LP
-.SH OPTIONS
-Options must be separate.
-.TP
-.B \-l
-produce a listing of the compiled bytecode for Lua's virtual machine.
-Listing bytecodes is useful to learn about Lua's virtual machine.
-If no files are given, then
-.B luac
-loads
-.B luac.out
-and lists its contents.
-.TP
-.BI \-o " file"
-output to
-.IR file ,
-instead of the default
-.BR luac.out .
-(You can use
-.B "'\-'"
-for standard output,
-but not on platforms that open standard output in text mode.)
-The output file may be a source file because
-all files are loaded before the output file is written.
-Be careful not to overwrite precious files.
-.TP
-.B \-p
-load files but do not generate any output file.
-Used mainly for syntax checking and for testing precompiled chunks:
-corrupted files will probably generate errors when loaded.
-Lua always performs a thorough integrity test on precompiled chunks.
-Bytecode that passes this test is completely safe,
-in the sense that it will not break the interpreter.
-However,
-there is no guarantee that such code does anything sensible.
-(None can be given, because the halting problem is unsolvable.)
-If no files are given, then
-.B luac
-loads
-.B luac.out
-and tests its contents.
-No messages are displayed if the file passes the integrity test.
-.TP
-.B \-s
-strip debug information before writing the output file.
-This saves some space in very large chunks,
-but if errors occur when running a stripped chunk,
-then the error messages may not contain the full information they usually do.
-For instance,
-line numbers and names of local variables are lost.
-.TP
-.B \-v
-show version information.
-.SH FILES
-.TP 15
-.B luac.out
-default output file
-.SH "SEE ALSO"
-.BR lua (1)
-.br
-http://www.lua.org/
-.SH DIAGNOSTICS
-Error messages should be self explanatory.
-.SH AUTHORS
-L. H. de Figueiredo,
-R. Ierusalimschy and
-W. Celes
-.\" EOF
--- a/src/lua-5.1.3/doc/luac.html	Tue Mar 18 02:15:29 2008 +0000
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,145 +0,0 @@
-<!-- $Id: luac.man,v 1.28 2006/01/06 16:03:34 lhf Exp $ -->
-<HTML>
-<HEAD>
-<TITLE>LUAC man page</TITLE>
-<LINK REL="stylesheet" TYPE="text/css" HREF="lua.css">
-</HEAD>
-
-<BODY BGCOLOR="#FFFFFF">
-
-<H2>NAME</H2>
-luac - Lua compiler
-<H2>SYNOPSIS</H2>
-<B>luac</B>
-[
-<I>options</I>
-] [
-<I>filenames</I>
-]
-<H2>DESCRIPTION</H2>
-<B>luac</B>
-is the Lua compiler.
-It translates programs written in the Lua programming language
-into binary files that can be later loaded and executed.
-<P>
-The main advantages of precompiling chunks are:
-faster loading,
-protecting source code from accidental user changes,
-and
-off-line syntax checking.
-<P>
-Precompiling does not imply faster execution
-because in Lua chunks are always compiled into bytecodes before being executed.
-<B>luac</B>
-simply allows those bytecodes to be saved in a file for later execution.
-<P>
-Precompiled chunks are not necessarily smaller than the corresponding source.
-The main goal in precompiling is faster loading.
-<P>
-The binary files created by
-<B>luac</B>
-are portable only among architectures with the same word size and byte order.
-<P>
-<B>luac</B>
-produces a single output file containing the bytecodes
-for all source files given.
-By default,
-the output file is named
-<B>luac.out</B>,
-but you can change this with the
-<B>-o</B>
-option.
-<P>
-In the command line,
-you can mix
-text files containing Lua source and
-binary files containing precompiled chunks.
-This is useful because several precompiled chunks,
-even from different (but compatible) platforms,
-can be combined into a single precompiled chunk.
-<P>
-You can use
-<B>'-'</B>
-to indicate the standard input as a source file
-and
-<B>'--'</B>
-to signal the end of options
-(that is,
-all remaining arguments will be treated as files even if they start with
-<B>'-'</B>).
-<P>
-The internal format of the binary files produced by
-<B>luac</B>
-is likely to change when a new version of Lua is released.
-So,
-save the source files of all Lua programs that you precompile.
-<P>
-<H2>OPTIONS</H2>
-Options must be separate.
-<P>
-<B>-l</B>
-produce a listing of the compiled bytecode for Lua's virtual machine.
-Listing bytecodes is useful to learn about Lua's virtual machine.
-If no files are given, then
-<B>luac</B>
-loads
-<B>luac.out</B>
-and lists its contents.
-<P>
-<B>-o </B><I>file</I>
-output to
-<I>file</I>,
-instead of the default
-<B>luac.out</B>.
-(You can use
-<B>'-'</B>
-for standard output,
-but not on platforms that open standard output in text mode.)
-The output file may be a source file because
-all files are loaded before the output file is written.
-Be careful not to overwrite precious files.
-<P>
-<B>-p</B>
-load files but do not generate any output file.
-Used mainly for syntax checking and for testing precompiled chunks:
-corrupted files will probably generate errors when loaded.
-Lua always performs a thorough integrity test on precompiled chunks.
-Bytecode that passes this test is completely safe,
-in the sense that it will not break the interpreter.
-However,
-there is no guarantee that such code does anything sensible.
-(None can be given, because the halting problem is unsolvable.)
-If no files are given, then
-<B>luac</B>
-loads
-<B>luac.out</B>
-and tests its contents.
-No messages are displayed if the file passes the integrity test.
-<P>
-<B>-s</B>
-strip debug information before writing the output file.
-This saves some space in very large chunks,
-but if errors occur when running a stripped chunk,
-then the error messages may not contain the full information they usually do.
-For instance,
-line numbers and names of local variables are lost.
-<P>
-<B>-v</B>
-show version information.
-<H2>FILES</H2>
-<P>
-<B>luac.out</B>
-default output file
-<H2>SEE ALSO</H2>
-<B>lua</B>(1)
-<BR>
-<A HREF="http://www.lua.org/">http://www.lua.org/</A>
-<H2>DIAGNOSTICS</H2>
-Error messages should be self explanatory.
-<H2>AUTHORS</H2>
-L. H. de Figueiredo,
-R. Ierusalimschy and
-W. Celes
-<!-- EOF -->
-</BODY>
-</HTML>
--- a/src/lua-5.1.3/doc/manual.css	Tue Mar 18 02:15:29 2008 +0000
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,13 +0,0 @@
-h3 code {
-	font-family: inherit ;
-}
-
-pre {
-	font-size: 105% ;
-}
-
-span.apii {
-	float: right ;
-	font-family: inherit ;
-}
-
--- a/src/lua-5.1.3/doc/manual.html	Tue Mar 18 02:15:29 2008 +0000
+++ /dev/null	Thu Jan 01 00:00:00 1970 +0000
@@ -1,8764 +0,0 @@
-<!DOCTYPE HTML PUBLIC "-//W3C//DTD HTML 4.01 Transitional//EN">
-<html>
-
-<head>
-<title>Lua 5.1 Reference Manual</title>
-<link rel="stylesheet" href="lua.css">
-<link rel="stylesheet" href="manual.css">
-<META HTTP-EQUIV="content-type" CONTENT="text/html; charset=iso-8859-1">
-</head>
-
-<body>
-
-<hr>
-<h1>
-<a href="http://www.lua.org/"><img src="logo.gif" alt="" border="0"></a>
-Lua 5.1 Reference Manual
-</h1>
-
-by Roberto Ierusalimschy, Luiz Henrique de Figueiredo, Waldemar Celes
-<p>
-<small>
-Copyright &copy; 2006-2008 Lua.org, PUC-Rio.
-Freely available under the terms of the
-<a href="http://www.lua.org/license.html#5">Lua license</a>.
-</small>
-<hr>
-<p>
-
-<a href="contents.html#contents">contents</A>
-&middot;
-<a href="contents.html#index">index</A>
-
-<!-- ====================================================================== -->
-<p>
-
-<!-- $Id: manual.of,v 1.45 2008/01/19 00:17:30 roberto Exp $ -->
-
-
-
-
-<h1>1 - <a name="1">Introduction</a></h1>
-
-<p>
-Lua is an extension programming language designed to support
-general procedural programming with data description
-facilities.
-It also offers good support for object-oriented programming,
-functional programming, and data-driven programming.
-Lua is intended to be used as a powerful, light-weight
-scripting language for any program that needs one.
-Lua is implemented as a library, written in <em>clean</em> C
-(that is, in the common subset of ANSI&nbsp;C and C++).
-
-
-<p>
-Being an extension language, Lua has no notion of a "main" program:
-it only works <em>embedded</em> in a host client,
-called the <em>embedding program</em> or simply the <em>host</em>.
-This host program can invoke functions to execute a piece of Lua code,
-can write and read Lua variables,
-and can register C&nbsp;functions to be called by Lua code.
-Through the use of C&nbsp;functions, Lua can be augmented to cope with
-a wide range of different domains,
-thus creating customized programming languages sharing a syntactical framework.
-The Lua distribution includes a sample host program called <code>lua</code>,
-which uses the Lua library to offer a complete, stand-alone Lua interpreter.
-
-
-<p>
-Lua is free software,
-and is provided as usual with no guarantees,
-as stated in its license.
-The implementation described in this manual is available
-at Lua's official web site, <code>www.lua.org</code>.
-
-
-<p>
-Like any other reference manual,
-this document is dry in places.
-For a discussion of the decisions behind the design of Lua,
-see the technical papers available at Lua's web site.
-For a detailed introduction to programming in Lua,
-see Roberto's book, <em>Programming in Lua (Second Edition)</em>.
-
-
-
-<h1>2 - <a name="2">The Language</a></h1>
-
-<p>
-This section describes the lexis, the syntax, and the semantics of Lua.
-In other words,
-this section describes
-which tokens are valid,
-how they can be combined,
-and what their combinations mean.
-
-
-<p>
-The language constructs will be explained using the usual extended BNF notation,
-in which
-{<em>a</em>}&nbsp;means&nbsp;0 or more <em>a</em>'s, and
-[<em>a</em>]&nbsp;means an optional <em>a</em>.
-Non-terminals are shown like non-terminal,
-keywords are shown like <b>kword</b>,
-and other terminal symbols are shown like `<b>=</b>&acute;.
-The complete syntax of Lua can be found at the end of this manual.
-
-
-
-<h2>2.1 - <a name="2.1">Lexical Conventions</a></h2>
-
-<p>
-<em>Names</em>
-(also called <em>identifiers</em>)
-in Lua can be any string of letters,
-digits, and underscores,
-not beginning with a digit.
-This coincides with the definition of names in most languages.
-(The definition of letter depends on the current locale:
-any character considered alphabetic by the current locale
-can be used in an identifier.)
-Identifiers are used to name variables and table fields.
-
-
-<p>
-The following <em>keywords</em> are reserved
-and cannot be used as names:
-
-
-<pre>
-     and       break     do        else      elseif
-     end       false     for       function  if
-     in        local     nil       not       or
-     repeat    return    then      true      until     while
-</pre>
-
-<p>
-Lua is a case-sensitive language:
-<code>and</code> is a reserved word, but <code>And</code> and <code>AND</code>
-are two different, valid names.
-As a convention, names starting with an underscore followed by
-uppercase letters (such as <code>_VERSION</code>)
-are reserved for internal global variables used by Lua.
-
-
-<p>
-The following strings denote other tokens:
-
-<pre>
-     +     -     *     /     %     ^     #
-     ==    ~=    &lt;=    &gt;=    &lt;     &gt;     =
-     (     )     {     }     [     ]
-     ;     :     ,     .     ..    ...
-</pre>
-
-<p>
-<em>Literal strings</em>
-can be delimited by matching single or double quotes,
-and can contain the following C-like escape sequences:
-'<code>\a</code>' (bell),
-'<code>\b</code>' (backspace),
-'<code>\f</code>' (form feed),
-'<code>\n</code>' (newline),
-'<code>\r</code>' (carriage return),
-'<code>\t</code>' (horizontal tab),
-'<code>\v</code>' (vertical tab),
-'<code>\\</code>' (backslash),
-'<code>\"</code>' (quotation mark [double quote]),
-and '<code>\'</code>' (apostrophe [single quote]).
-Moreover, a backslash followed by a real newline
-results in a newline in the string.
-A character in a string may also be specified by its numerical value
-using the escape sequence <code>\<em>ddd</em></code>,
-where <em>ddd</em> is a sequence of up to three decimal digits.
-(Note that if a numerical escape is to be followed by a digit,
-it must be expressed using exactly three digits.)
-Strings in Lua may contain any 8-bit value, including embedded zeros,
-which can be specified as '<code>\0</code>'.
-
-
-<p>
-To put a double (single) quote, a newline, a backslash,
-a carriage return,
-or an embedded zero
-inside a literal string enclosed by double (single) quotes
-you must use an escape sequence.
-Any other character may be directly inserted into the literal.
-(Some control characters may cause problems for the file system,
-but Lua has no problem with them.)
-
-
-<p>
-Literal strings can also be defined using a long format
-enclosed by <em>long brackets</em>.
-We define an <em>opening long bracket of level <em>n</em></em> as an opening
-square bracket followed by <em>n</em> equal signs followed by another
-opening square bracket.
-So, an opening long bracket of level&nbsp;0 is written as <code>[[</code>,
-an opening long bracket of level&nbsp;1 is written as <code>[=[</code>,
-and so on.
-A <em>closing long bracket</em> is defined similarly;
-for instance, a closing long bracket of level&nbsp;4 is written as <code>]====]</code>.
-A long string starts with an opening long bracket of any level and
-ends at the first closing long bracket of the same level.
-Literals in this bracketed form may run for several lines,
-do not interpret any escape sequences,
-and ignore long brackets of any other level.
-They may contain anything except a closing bracket of the proper level.
-
-
-<p>
-For convenience,
-when the opening long bracket is immediately followed by a newline,
-the newline is not included in the string.
-As an example, in a system using ASCII
-(in which '<code>a</code>' is coded as&nbsp;97,
-newline is coded as&nbsp;10, and '<code>1</code>' is coded as&nbsp;49),
-the five literals below denote the same string:
-
-<pre>
-     a = 'alo\n123"'
-     a = "alo\n123\""
-     a = '\97lo\10\04923"'
-     a = [[alo
-     123"]]
-     a = [==[
-     alo
-     123"]==]
-</pre>
-
-<p>
-A <em>numerical constant</em> may be written with an optional decimal part
-and an optional decimal exponent.
-Lua also accepts integer hexadecimal constants,
-by prefixing them with <code>0x</code>.
-Examples of valid numerical constants are
-
-<pre>
-     3   3.0   3.1416   314.16e-2   0.31416E1   0xff   0x56
-</pre>
-
-<p>
-A <em>comment</em> starts with a double hyphen (<code>--</code>)
-anywhere outside a string.
-If the text immediately after <code>--</code> is not an opening long bracket,
-the comment is a <em>short comment</em>,
-which runs until the end of the line.
-Otherwise, it is a <em>long comment</em>,
-which runs until the corresponding closing long bracket.
-Long comments are frequently used to disable code temporarily.
-
-
-
-
-
-<h2>2.2 - <a name="2.2">Values and Types</a></h2>
-
-<p>
-Lua is a <em>dynamically typed language</em>.
-This means that
-variables do not have types; only values do.
-There are no type definitions in the language.
-All values carry their own type.
-
-
-<p>
-All values in Lua are <em>first-class values</em>.
-This means that all values can be stored in variables,
-passed as arguments to other functions, and returned as results.
-
-
-<p>
-There are eight basic types in Lua:
-<em>nil</em>, <em>boolean</em>, <em>number</em>,
-<em>string</em>, <em>function</em>, <em>userdata</em>,
-<em>thread</em>, and <em>table</em>.
-<em>Nil</em> is the type of the value <b>nil</b>,
-whose main property is to be different from any other value;
-it usually represents the absence of a useful value.
-<em>Boolean</em> is the type of the values <b>false</b> and <b>true</b>.
-Both <b>nil</b> and <b>false</b> make a condition false;
-any other value makes it true.
-<em>Number</em> represents real (double-precision floating-point) numbers.
-(It is easy to build Lua interpreters that use other
-internal representations for numbers,
-such as single-precision float or long integers;
-see file <code>luaconf.h</code>.)
-<em>String</em> represents arrays of characters.
-
-Lua is 8-bit clean:
-strings may contain any 8-bit character,
-including embedded zeros ('<code>\0</code>') (see <a href="#2.1">&sect;2.1</a>).
-
-
-<p>
-Lua can call (and manipulate) functions written in Lua and
-functions written in C
-(see <a href="#2.5.8">&sect;2.5.8</a>).
-
-
-<p>
-The type <em>userdata</em> is provided to allow arbitrary C&nbsp;data to
-be stored in Lua variables.
-This type corresponds to a block of raw memory
-and has no pre-defined operations in Lua,
-except assignment and identity test.
-However, by using <em>metatables</em>,
-the programmer can define operations for userdata values
-(see <a href="#2.8">&sect;2.8</a>).
-Userdata values cannot be created or modified in Lua,
-only through the C&nbsp;API.
-This guarantees the integrity of data owned by the host program.
-
-
-<p>
-The type <em>thread</em> represents independent threads of execution
-and it is used to implement coroutines (see <a href="#2.11">&sect;2.11</a>).
-Do not confuse Lua threads with operating-system threads.
-Lua supports coroutines on all systems,
-even those that do not support threads.
-
-
-<p>
-The type <em>table</em> implements associative arrays,
-that is, arrays that can be indexed not only with numbers,
-but with any value (except <b>nil</b>).
-Tables can be <em>heterogeneous</em>;
-that is, they can contain values of all types (except <b>nil</b>).
-Tables are the sole data structuring mechanism in Lua;
-they may be used to represent ordinary arrays,
-symbol tables, sets, records, graphs, trees, etc.
-To represent records, Lua uses the field name as an index.
-The language supports this representation by
-providing <code>a.name</code> as syntactic sugar for <code>a["name"]</code>.
-There are several convenient ways to create tables in Lua
-(see <a href="#2.5.7">&sect;2.5.7</a>).
-
-
-<p>
-Like indices,
-the value of a table field can be of any type (except <b>nil</b>).
-In particular,
-because functions are first-class values,
-table fields may contain functions.
-Thus tables may also carry <em>methods</em> (see <a href="#2.5.9">&sect;2.5.9</a>).
-
-
-<p>
-Tables, functions, threads, and (full) userdata values are <em>objects</em>:
-variables do not actually <em>contain</em> these values,
-only <em>references</em> to them.
-Assignment, parameter passing, and function returns
-always manipulate references to such values;
-these operations do not imply any kind of copy.
-
-
-<p>
-The library function <a href="#pdf-type"><code>type</code></a> returns a string describing the type
-of a given value.
-
-
-
-<h3>2.2.1 - <a name="2.2.1">Coercion</a></h3>
-
-<p>
-Lua provides automatic conversion between
-string and number values at run time.
-Any arithmetic operation applied to a string tries to convert
-this string to a number, following the usual conversion rules.
-Conversely, whenever a number is used where a string is expected,
-the number is converted to a string, in a reasonable format.
-For complete control over how numbers are converted to strings,
-use the <code>format</code> function from the string library
-(see <a href="#pdf-string.format"><code>string.format</code></a>).
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<h2>2.3 - <a name="2.3">Variables</a></h2>
-
-<p>
-Variables are places that store values.
-
-There are three kinds of variables in Lua:
-global variables, local variables, and table fields.
-
-
-<p>
-A single name can denote a global variable or a local variable
-(or a function's formal parameter,
-which is a particular kind of local variable):
-
-<pre>
-	var ::= Name
-</pre><p>
-Name denotes identifiers, as defined in <a href="#2.1">&sect;2.1</a>.
-
-
-<p>
-Any variable is assumed to be global unless explicitly declared
-as a local (see <a href="#2.4.7">&sect;2.4.7</a>).
-Local variables are <em>lexically scoped</em>:
-local variables can be freely accessed by functions
-defined inside their scope (see <a href="#2.6">&sect;2.6</a>).
-
-
-<p>
-Before the first assignment to a variable, its value is <b>nil</b>.
-
-
-<p>
-Square brackets are used to index a table:
-
-<pre>
-	var ::= prefixexp `<b>[</b>&acute; exp `<b>]</b>&acute;
-</pre><p>
-The meaning of accesses to global variables 
-and table fields can be changed via metatables.
-An access to an indexed variable <code>t[i]</code> is equivalent to
-a call <code>gettable_event(t,i)</code>.
-(See <a href="#2.8">&sect;2.8</a> for a complete description of the
-<code>gettable_event</code> function.
-This function is not defined or callable in Lua.
-We use it here only for explanatory purposes.)
-
-
-<p>
-The syntax <code>var.Name</code> is just syntactic sugar for
-<code>var["Name"]</code>:
-
-<pre>
-	var ::= prefixexp `<b>.</b>&acute; Name
-</pre>
-
-<p>
-All global variables live as fields in ordinary Lua tables,
-called <em>environment tables</em> or simply
-<em>environments</em> (see <a href="#2.9">&sect;2.9</a>).
-Each function has its own reference to an environment,
-so that all global variables in this function
-will refer to this environment table.
-When a function is created,
-it inherits the environment from the function that created it.
-To get the environment table of a Lua function,
-you call <a href="#pdf-getfenv"><code>getfenv</code></a>.
-To replace it,
-you call <a href="#pdf-setfenv"><code>setfenv</code></a>.
-(You can only manipulate the environment of C&nbsp;functions
-through the debug library; (see <a href="#5.9">&sect;5.9</a>).)
-
-
-<p>
-An access to a global variable <code>x</code>
-is equivalent to <code>_env.x</code>,
-which in turn is equivalent to
-
-<pre>
-     gettable_event(_env, "x")
-</pre><p>
-where <code>_env</code> is the environment of the running function.
-(See <a href="#2.8">&sect;2.8</a> for a complete description of the
-<code>gettable_event</code> function.
-This function is not defined or callable in Lua.
-Similarly, the <code>_env</code> variable is not defined in Lua.
-We use them here only for explanatory purposes.)
-
-
-
-
-
-<h2>2.4 - <a name="2.4">Statements</a></h2>
-
-<p>
-Lua supports an almost conventional set of statements,
-similar to those in Pascal or C.
-This set includes
-assignment, control structures, function calls,
-and variable declarations.
-
-
-
-<h3>2.4.1 - <a name="2.4.1">Chunks</a></h3>
-
-<p>
-The unit of execution of Lua is called a <em>chunk</em>.
-A chunk is simply a sequence of statements,
-which are executed sequentially.
-Each statement can be optionally followed by a semicolon:
-
-<pre>
-	chunk ::= {stat [`<b>;</b>&acute;]}
-</pre><p>
-There are no empty statements and thus '<code>;;</code>' is not legal.
-
-
-<p>
-Lua handles a chunk as the body of an anonymous function 
-with a variable number of arguments
-(see <a href="#2.5.9">&sect;2.5.9</a>).
-As such, chunks can define local variables,
-receive arguments, and return values.
-
-
-<p>
-A chunk may be stored in a file or in a string inside the host program.
-When a chunk is executed, first it is pre-compiled into instructions for
-a virtual machine,
-and then the compiled code is executed
-by an interpreter for the virtual machine.
-
-
-<p>
-Chunks may also be pre-compiled into binary form;
-see program <code>luac</code> for details.
-Programs in source and compiled forms are interchangeable;
-Lua automatically detects the file type and acts accordingly.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<h3>2.4.2 - <a name="2.4.2">Blocks</a></h3><p>
-A block is a list of statements;
-syntactically, a block is the same as a chunk:
-
-<pre>
-	block ::= chunk
-</pre>
-
-<p>
-A block may be explicitly delimited to produce a single statement:
-
-<pre>
-	stat ::= <b>do</b> block <b>end</b>
-</pre><p>
-Explicit blocks are useful
-to control the scope of variable declarations.
-Explicit blocks are also sometimes used to
-add a <b>return</b> or <b>break</b> statement in the middle
-of another block (see <a href="#2.4.4">&sect;2.4.4</a>).
-
-
-
-
-
-<h3>2.4.3 - <a name="2.4.3">Assignment</a></h3>
-
-<p>
-Lua allows multiple assignment.
-Therefore, the syntax for assignment
-defines a list of variables on the left side
-and a list of expressions on the right side.
-The elements in both lists are separated by commas:
-
-<pre>
-	stat ::= varlist `<b>=</b>&acute; explist
-	varlist ::= var {`<b>,</b>&acute; var}
-	explist ::= exp {`<b>,</b>&acute; exp}
-</pre><p>
-Expressions are discussed in <a href="#2.5">&sect;2.5</a>.
-
-
-<p>
-Before the assignment,
-the list of values is <em>adjusted</em> to the length of
-the list of variables.
-If there are more values than needed,
-the excess values are thrown away.
-If there are fewer values than needed,
-the list is extended with as many  <b>nil</b>'s as needed.
-If the list of expressions ends with a function call,
-then all values returned by this call enter in the list of values,
-before the adjustment
-(except when the call is enclosed in parentheses; see <a href="#2.5">&sect;2.5</a>).
-
-
-<p>
-The assignment statement first evaluates all its expressions
-and only then are the assignments performed.
-Thus the code
-
-<pre>
-     i = 3
-     i, a[i] = i+1, 20
-</pre><p>
-sets <code>a[3]</code> to 20, without affecting <code>a[4]</code>
-because the <code>i</code> in <code>a[i]</code> is evaluated (to 3)
-before it is assigned&nbsp;4.
-Similarly, the line
-
-<pre>
-     x, y = y, x
-</pre><p>
-exchanges the values of <code>x</code> and <code>y</code>.
-
-
-<p>
-The meaning of assignments to global variables
-and table fields can be changed via metatables.
-An assignment to an indexed variable <code>t[i] = val</code> is equivalent to
-<code>settable_event(t,i,val)</code>.
-(See <a href="#2.8">&sect;2.8</a> for a complete description of the
-<code>settable_event</code> function.
-This function is not defined or callable in Lua.
-We use it here only for explanatory purposes.)
-
-
-<p>
-An assignment to a global variable <code>x = val</code>
-is equivalent to the assignment
-<code>_env.x = val</code>,
-which in turn is equivalent to
-
-<pre>
-     settable_event(_env, "x", val)
-</pre><p>
-where <code>_env</code> is the environment of the running function.
-(The <code>_env</code> variable is not defined in Lua.
-We use it here only for explanatory purposes.)
-
-
-
-
-
-<h3>2.4.4 - <a name="2.4.4">Control Structures</a></h3><p>
-The control structures
-<b>if</b>, <b>while</b>, and <b>repeat</b> have the usual meaning and
-familiar syntax:
-
-
-
-
-<pre>
-	stat ::= <b>while</b> exp <b>do</b> block <b>end</b>
-	stat ::= <b>repeat</b> block <b>until</b> exp
-	stat ::= <b>if</b> exp <b>then</b> block {<b>elseif</b> exp <b>then</b> block} [<b>else</b> block] <b>end</b>
-</pre><p>
-Lua also has a <b>for</b> statement, in two flavors (see <a href="#2.4.5">&sect;2.4.5</a>).
-
-
-<p>
-The condition expression of a
-control structure may return any value.
-Both <b>false</b> and <b>nil</b> are considered false.
-All values different from <b>nil</b> and <b>false</b> are considered true
-(in particular, the number 0 and the empty string are also true).
-
-
-<p>
-In the <b>repeat</b>&ndash;<b>until</b> loop,
-the inner block does not end at the <b>until</b> keyword,
-but only after the condition.
-So, the condition can refer to local variables
-declared inside the loop block.
-
-
-<p>
-The <b>return</b> statement is used to return values
-from a function or a chunk (which is just a function).
-
-Functions and chunks may return more than one value,
-so the syntax for the <b>return</b> statement is
-
-<pre>
-	stat ::= <b>return</b> [explist]
-</pre>
-
-<p>
-The <b>break</b> statement is used to terminate the execution of a
-<b>while</b>, <b>repeat</b>, or <b>for</b> loop,
-skipping to the next statement after the loop:
-
-
-<pre>
-	stat ::= <b>break</b>
-</pre><p>
-A <b>break</b> ends the innermost enclosing loop.
-
-
-<p>
-The <b>return</b> and <b>break</b>
-statements can only be written as the <em>last</em> statement of a block.
-If it is really necessary to <b>return</b> or <b>break</b> in the
-middle of a block,
-then an explicit inner block can be used,
-as in the idioms
-<code>do return end</code> and <code>do break end</code>,
-because now <b>return</b> and <b>break</b> are the last statements in
-their (inner) blocks.
-
-
-
-
-
-<h3>2.4.5 - <a name="2.4.5">For Statement</a></h3>
-
-<p>
-
-The <b>for</b> statement has two forms:
-one numeric and one generic.
-
-
-<p>
-The numeric <b>for</b> loop repeats a block of code while a
-control variable runs through an arithmetic progression.
-It has the following syntax:
-
-<pre>
-	stat ::= <b>for</b> Name `<b>=</b>&acute; exp `<b>,</b>&acute; exp [`<b>,</b>&acute; exp] <b>do</b> block <b>end</b>
-</pre><p>
-The <em>block</em> is repeated for <em>name</em> starting at the value of
-the first <em>exp</em>, until it passes the second <em>exp</em> by steps of the
-third <em>exp</em>.
-More precisely, a <b>for</b> statement like
-
-<pre>
-     for v = <em>e1</em>, <em>e2</em>, <em>e3</em> do <em>block</em> end
-</pre><p>
-is equivalent to the code:
-
-<pre>
-     do
-       local <em>var</em>, <em>limit</em>, <em>step</em> = tonumber(<em>e1</em>), tonumber(<em>e2</em>), tonumber(<em>e3</em>)
-       if not (<em>var</em> and <em>limit</em> and <em>step</em>) then error() end
-       while (<em>step</em> &gt; 0 and <em>var</em> &lt;= <em>limit</em>) or (<em>step</em> &lt;= 0 and <em>var</em> &gt;= <em>limit</em>) do
-         local v = <em>var</em>
-         <em>block</em>
-         <em>var</em> = <em>var</em> + <em>step</em>
-       end
-     end
-</pre><p>
-Note the following:
-
-<ul>
-
-<li>
-All three control expressions are evaluated only once,
-before the loop starts.
-They must all result in numbers.
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<code><em>var</em></code>, <code><em>limit</em></code>, and <code><em>step</em></code> are invisible variables.
-The names are here for explanatory purposes only.
-</li>
-
-<li>
-If the third expression (the step) is absent,
-then a step of&nbsp;1 is used.
-</li>
-
-<li>
-You can use <b>break</b> to exit a <b>for</b> loop.
-</li>
-
-<li>
-The loop variable <code>v</code> is local to the loop;
-you cannot use its value after the <b>for</b> ends or is broken.
-If you need this value,
-assign it to another variable before breaking or exiting the loop.
-</li>
-
-</ul>
-
-<p>
-The generic <b>for</b> statement works over functions,
-called <em>iterators</em>.
-On each iteration, the iterator function is called to produce a new value,
-stopping when this new value is <b>nil</b>.
-The generic <b>for</b> loop has the following syntax:
-
-<pre>
-	stat ::= <b>for</b> namelist <b>in</b> explist <b>do</b> block <b>end</b>
-	namelist ::= Name {`<b>,</b>&acute; Name}
-</pre><p>
-A <b>for</b> statement like
-
-<pre>
-     for <em>var_1</em>, &middot;&middot;&middot;, <em>var_n</em> in <em>explist</em> do <em>block</em> end
-</pre><p>
-is equivalent to the code:
-
-<pre>
-     do
-       local <em>f</em>, <em>s</em>, <em>var</em> = <em>explist</em>
-       while true do
-         local <em>var_1</em>, &middot;&middot;&middot;, <em>var_n</em> = <em>f</em>(<em>s</em>, <em>var</em>)
-         <em>var</em> = <em>var_1</em>
-         if <em>var</em> == nil then break end
-         <em>block</em>
-       end
-     end
-</pre><p>
-Note the following:
-
-<ul>
-
-<li>
-<code><em>explist</em></code> is evaluated only once.
-Its results are an <em>iterator</em> function,
-a <em>state</em>,
-and an initial value for the first <em>iterator variable</em>.
-</li>
-
-<li>
-<code><em>f</em></code>, <code><em>s</em></code>, and <code><em>var</em></code> are invisible variables.
-The names are here for explanatory purposes only.
-</li>
-
-<li>
-You can use <b>break</b> to exit a <b>for</b> loop.
-</li>
-
-<li>
-The loop variables <code><em>var_i</em></code> are local to the loop;
-you cannot use their values after the <b>for</b> ends.
-If you need these values,
-then assign them to other variables before breaking or exiting the loop.
-</li>
-
-</ul>
-
-
-
-
-<h3>2.4.6 - <a name="2.4.6">Function Calls as Statements</a></h3><p>
-To allow possible side-effects,
-function calls can be executed as statements:
-
-<pre>
-	stat ::= functioncall
-</pre><p>
-In this case, all returned values are thrown away.
-Function calls are explained in <a href="#2.5.8">&sect;2.5.8</a>.
-
-
-
-
-
-<h3>2.4.7 - <a name="2.4.7">Local Declarations</a></h3><p>
-Local variables may be declared anywhere inside a block.
-The declaration may include an initial assignment:
-
-<pre>
-	stat ::= <b>local</b> namelist [`<b>=</b>&acute; explist]
-</pre><p>
-If present, an initial assignment has the same semantics
-of a multiple assignment (see <a href="#2.4.3">&sect;2.4.3</a>).
-Otherwise, all variables are initialized with <b>nil</b>.
-
-
-<p>
-A chunk is also a block (see <a href="#2.4.1">&sect;2.4.1</a>),
-and so local variables can be declared in a chunk outside any explicit block.
-The scope of such local variables extends until the end of the chunk.
-
-
-<p>
-The visibility rules for local variables are explained in <a href="#2.6">&sect;2.6</a>.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<h2>2.5 - <a name="2.5">Expressions</a></h2>
-
-<p>
-The basic expressions in Lua are the following:
-
-<pre>
-	exp ::= prefixexp
-	exp ::= <b>nil</b> | <b>false</b> | <b>true</b>
-	exp ::= Number
-	exp ::= String
-	exp ::= function
-	exp ::= tableconstructor
-	exp ::= `<b>...</b>&acute;
-	exp ::= exp binop exp
-	exp ::= unop exp
-	prefixexp ::= var | functioncall | `<b>(</b>&acute; exp `<b>)</b>&acute;
-</pre>
-
-<p>
-Numbers and literal strings are explained in <a href="#2.1">&sect;2.1</a>;
-variables are explained in <a href="#2.3">&sect;2.3</a>;
-function definitions are explained in <a href="#2.5.9">&sect;2.5.9</a>;
-function calls are explained in <a href="#2.5.8">&sect;2.5.8</a>;
-table constructors are explained in <a href="#2.5.7">&sect;2.5.7</a>.
-Vararg expressions,
-denoted by three dots ('<code>...</code>'), can only be used when
-directly inside a vararg function;
-they are explained in <a href="#2.5.9">&sect;2.5.9</a>.
-
-
-<p>
-Binary operators comprise arithmetic operators (see <a href="#2.5.1">&sect;2.5.1</a>),
-relational operators (see <a href="#2.5.2">&sect;2.5.2</a>), logical operators (see <a href="#2.5.3">&sect;2.5.3</a>),
-and the concatenation operator (see <a href="#2.5.4">&sect;2.5.4</a>).
-Unary operators comprise the unary minus (see <a href="#2.5.1">&sect;2.5.1</a>),
-the unary <b>not</b> (see <a href="#2.5.3">&sect;2.5.3</a>),
-and the unary <em>length operator</em> (see <a href="#2.5.5">&sect;2.5.5</a>).
-
-
-<p>
-Both function calls and vararg expressions may result in multiple values.
-If the expression is used as a statement (see <a href="#2.4.6">&sect;2.4.6</a>)
-(only possible for function calls),
-then its return list is adjusted to zero elements,
-thus discarding all returned values.
-If the expression is used as the last (or the only) element
-of a list of expressions,
-then no adjustment is made
-(unless the call is enclosed in parentheses).
-In all other contexts,
-Lua adjusts the result list to one element,
-discarding all values except the first one.
-
-
-<p>
-Here are some examples:
-
-<pre>
-     f()                -- adjusted to 0 results
-     g(f(), x)          -- f() is adjusted to 1 result
-     g(x, f())          -- g gets x plus all results from f()
-     a,b,c = f(), x     -- f() is adjusted to 1 result (c gets nil)
-     a,b = ...          -- a gets the first vararg parameter, b gets
-                        -- the second (both a and b may get nil if there
-                        -- is no corresponding vararg parameter)
-     
-     a,b,c = x, f()     -- f() is adjusted to 2 results
-     a,b,c = f()        -- f() is adjusted to 3 results
-     return f()         -- returns all results from f()
-     return ...         -- returns all received vararg parameters
-     return x,y,f()     -- returns x, y, and all results from f()
-     {f()}              -- creates a list with all results from f()
-     {...}              -- creates a list with all vararg parameters
-     {f(), nil}         -- f() is adjusted to 1 result
-</pre>
-
-<p>
-An expression enclosed in parentheses always results in only one value.
-Thus,
-<code>(f(x,y,z))</code> is always a single value,
-even if <code>f</code> returns several values.
-(The value of <code>(f(x,y,z))</code> is the first value returned by <code>f</code>
-or <b>nil</b> if <code>f</code> does not return any values.)
-
-
-
-<h3>2.5.1 - <a name="2.5.1">Arithmetic Operators</a></h3><p>
-Lua supports the usual arithmetic operators:
-the binary <code>+</code> (addition),
-<code>-</code> (subtraction), <code>*</code> (multiplication),
-<code>/</code> (division), <code>%</code> (modulo), and <code>^</code> (exponentiation);
-and unary <code>-</code> (negation).
-If the operands are numbers, or strings that can be converted to
-numbers (see <a href="#2.2.1">&sect;2.2.1</a>),
-then all operations have the usual meaning.
-Exponentiation works for any exponent.
-For instance, <code>x^(-0.5)</code> computes the inverse of the square root of <code>x</code>.
-Modulo is defined as
-
-<pre>
-     a % b == a - math.floor(a/b)*b
-</pre><p>
-That is, it is the remainder of a division that rounds
-the quotient towards minus infinity.
-
-
-
-
-
-<h3>2.5.2 - <a name="2.5.2">Relational Operators</a></h3><p>
-The relational operators in Lua are
-
-<pre>
-     ==    ~=    &lt;     &gt;     &lt;=    &gt;=
-</pre><p>
-These operators always result in <b>false</b> or <b>true</b>.
-
-
-<p>
-Equality (<code>==</code>) first compares the type of its operands.
-If the types are different, then the result is <b>false</b>.
-Otherwise, the values of the operands are compared.
-Numbers and strings are compared in the usual way.
-Objects (tables, userdata, threads, and functions)
-are compared by <em>reference</em>:
-two objects are considered equal only if they are the <em>same</em> object.
-Every time you create a new object
-(a table, userdata, thread, or function),
-this new object is different from any previously existing object.
-
-
-<p>
-You can change the way that Lua compares tables and userdata 
-by using the "eq" metamethod (see <a href="#2.8">&sect;2.8</a>).
-
-
-<p>
-The conversion rules of <a href="#2.2.1">&sect;2.2.1</a>
-<em>do not</em> apply to equality comparisons.
-Thus, <code>"0"==0</code> evaluates to <b>false</b>,
-and <code>t[0]</code> and <code>t["0"]</code> denote different
-entries in a table.
-
-
-<p>
-The operator <code>~=</code> is exactly the negation of equality (<code>==</code>).
-
-
-<p>
-The order operators work as follows.
-If both arguments are numbers, then they are compared as such.
-Otherwise, if both arguments are strings,
-then their values are compared according to the current locale.
-Otherwise, Lua tries to call the "lt" or the "le"
-metamethod (see <a href="#2.8">&sect;2.8</a>).
-
-
-
-
-
-<h3>2.5.3 - <a name="2.5.3">Logical Operators</a></h3><p>
-The logical operators in Lua are
-<b>and</b>, <b>or</b>, and <b>not</b>.
-Like the control structures (see <a href="#2.4.4">&sect;2.4.4</a>),
-all logical operators consider both <b>false</b> and <b>nil</b> as false
-and anything else as true.
-
-
-<p>
-The negation operator <b>not</b> always returns <b>false</b> or <b>true</b>.
-The conjunction operator <b>and</b> returns its first argument
-if this value is <b>false</b> or <b>nil</b>;
-otherwise, <b>and</b> returns its second argument.
-The disjunction operator <b>or</b> returns its first argument
-if this value is different from <b>nil</b> and <b>false</b>;
-otherwise, <b>or</b> returns its second argument.
-Both <b>and</b> and <b>or</b> use short-cut evaluation;
-that is,
-the second operand is evaluated only if necessary.
-Here are some examples:
-
-<pre>
-     10 or 20            --&gt; 10
-     10 or error()       --&gt; 10
-     nil or "a"          --&gt; "a"
-     nil and 10          --&gt; nil
-     false and error()   --&gt; false
-     false and nil       --&gt; false
-     false or nil        --&gt; nil
-     10 and 20           --&gt; 20
-</pre><p>
-(In this manual,
---> indicates the result of the preceding expression.)
-
-
-
-
-
-<h3>2.5.4 - <a name="2.5.4">Concatenation</a></h3><p>
-The string concatenation operator in Lua is
-denoted by two dots ('<code>..</code>').
-If both operands are strings or numbers, then they are converted to
-strings according to the rules mentioned in <a href="#2.2.1">&sect;2.2.1</a>.
-Otherwise, the "concat" metamethod is called (see <a href="#2.8">&sect;2.8</a>).
-
-
-
-
-
-<h3>2.5.5 - <a name="2.5.5">The Length Operator</a></h3>
-
-<p>
-The length operator is denoted by the unary operator <code>#</code>.
-The length of a string is its number of bytes
-(that is, the usual meaning of string length when each
-character is one byte).
-
-
-<p>
-The length of a table <code>t</code> is defined to be any
-integer index <code>n</code>
-such that <code>t[n]</code> is not <b>nil</b> and <code>t[n+1]</code> is <b>nil</b>;
-moreover, if <code>t[1]</code> is <b>nil</b>, <code>n</code> may be zero.
-For a regular array, with non-nil values from 1 to a given <code>n</code>,
-its length is exactly that <code>n</code>,
-the index of its last value.
-If the array has "holes"
-(that is, <b>nil</b> values between other non-nil values),
-then <code>#t</code> may be any of the indices that
-directly precedes a <b>nil</b> value
-(that is, it may consider any such <b>nil</b> value as the end of
-the array). 
-
-
-
-
-
-<h3>2.5.6 - <a name="2.5.6">Precedence</a></h3><p>
-Operator precedence in Lua follows the table below,
-from lower to higher priority:
-
-<pre>
-     or
-     and
-     &lt;     &gt;     &lt;=    &gt;=    ~=    ==
-     ..
-     +     -
-     *     /     %
-     not   #     - (unary)
-     ^
-</pre><p>
-As usual,
-you can use parentheses to change the precedences of an expression.
-The concatenation ('<code>..</code>') and exponentiation ('<code>^</code>')
-operators are right associative.
-All other binary operators are left associative.
-
-
-
-
-
-<h3>2.5.7 - <a name="2.5.7">Table Constructors</a></h3><p>
-Table constructors are expressions that create tables.
-Every time a constructor is evaluated, a new table is created.
-Constructors can be used to create empty tables,
-or to create a table and initialize some of its fields.
-The general syntax for constructors is
-
-<pre>
-	tableconstructor ::= `<b>{</b>&acute; [fieldlist] `<b>}</b>&acute;
-	fieldlist ::= field {fieldsep field} [fieldsep]
-	field ::= `<b>[</b>&acute; exp `<b>]</b>&acute; `<b>=</b>&acute; exp | Name `<b>=</b>&acute; exp | exp
-	fieldsep ::= `<b>,</b>&acute; | `<b>;</b>&acute;
-</pre>
-
-<p>
-Each field of the form <code>[exp1] = exp2</code> adds to the new table an entry
-with key <code>exp1</code> and value <code>exp2</code>.
-A field of the form <code>name = exp</code> is equivalent to
-<code>["name"] = exp</code>.
-Finally, fields of the form <code>exp</code> are equivalent to
-<code>[i] = exp</code>, where <code>i</code> are consecutive numerical integers,
-starting with 1.
-Fields in the other formats do not affect this counting.
-For example,
-
-<pre>
-     a = { [f(1)] = g; "x", "y"; x = 1, f(x), [30] = 23; 45 }
-</pre><p>
-is equivalent to
-
-<pre>
-     do
-       local t = {}
-       t[f(1)] = g
-       t[1] = "x"         -- 1st exp
-       t[2] = "y"         -- 2nd exp
-       t.x = 1            -- t["x"] = 1
-       t[3] = f(x)        -- 3rd exp
-       t[30] = 23
-       t[4] = 45          -- 4th exp
-       a = t
-     end
-</pre>
-
-<p>
-If the last field in the list has the form <code>exp</code>
-and the expression is a function call or a vararg expression,
-then all values returned by this expression enter the list consecutively
-(see <a href="#2.5.8">&sect;2.5.8</a>).
-To avoid this,
-enclose the function call (or the vararg expression)
-in parentheses (see <a href="#2.5">&sect;2.5</a>).
-
-
-<p>
-The field list may have an optional trailing separator,
-as a convenience for machine-generated code.
-
-
-
-
-
-<h3>2.5.8 - <a name="2.5.8">Function Calls</a></h3><p>
-A function call in Lua has the following syntax:
-
-<pre>
-	functioncall ::= prefixexp args
-</pre><p>
-In a function call,
-first prefixexp and args are evaluated.
-If the value of prefixexp has type <em>function</em>,
-then this function is called
-with the given arguments.
-Otherwise, the prefixexp "call" metamethod is called,
-having as first parameter the value of prefixexp,
-followed by the original call arguments
-(see <a href="#2.8">&sect;2.8</a>).
-
-
-<p>
-The form
-
-<pre>
-	functioncall ::= prefixexp `<b>:</b>&acute; Name args
-</pre><p>
-can be used to call "methods".
-A call <code>v:name(<em>args</em>)</code>
-is syntactic sugar for <code>v.name(v,<em>args</em>)</code>,
-except that <code>v</code> is evaluated only once.
-
-
-<p>
-Arguments have the following syntax:
-
-<pre>
-	args ::= `<b>(</b>&acute; [explist] `<b>)</b>&acute;
-	args ::= tableconstructor
-	args ::= String
-</pre><p>
-All argument expressions are evaluated before the call.
-A call of the form <code>f{<em>fields</em>}</code> is
-syntactic sugar for <code>f({<em>fields</em>})</code>;
-that is, the argument list is a single new table.
-A call of the form <code>f'<em>string</em>'</code>
-(or <code>f"<em>string</em>"</code> or <code>f[[<em>string</em>]]</code>)
-is syntactic sugar for <code>f('<em>string</em>')</code>;
-that is, the argument list is a single literal string.
-
-
-<p>
-As an exception to the free-format syntax of Lua,
-you cannot put a line break before the '<code>(</code>' in a function call.
-This restriction avoids some ambiguities in the language.
-If you write
-
-<pre>
-     a = f
-     (g).x(a)
-</pre><p>
-Lua would see that as a single statement, <code>a = f(g).x(a)</code>.
-So, if you want two statements, you must add a semi-colon between them.
-If you actually want to call <code>f</code>,
-you must remove the line break before <code>(g)</code>.
-
-
-<p>
-A call of the form <code>return</code> <em>functioncall</em> is called
-a <em>tail call</em>.
-Lua implements <em>proper tail calls</em>
-(or <em>proper tail recursion</em>):
-in a tail call,
-the called function reuses the stack entry of the calling function.
-Therefore, there is no limit on the number of nested tail calls that
-a program can execute.
-However, a tail call erases any debug information about the
-calling function.
-Note that a tail call only happens with a particular syntax,
-where the <b>return</b> has one single function call as argument;
-this syntax makes the calling function return exactly
-the returns of the called function.
-So, none of the following examples are tail calls:
-
-<pre>
-     return (f(x))        -- results adjusted to 1
-     return 2 * f(x)
-     return x, f(x)       -- additional results
-     f(x); return         -- results discarded
-     return x or f(x)     -- results adjusted to 1
-</pre>
-
-
-
-
-<h3>2.5.9 - <a name="2.5.9">Function Definitions</a></h3>
-
-<p>
-The syntax for function definition is
-
-<pre>
-	function ::= <b>function</b> funcbody
-	funcbody ::= `<b>(</b>&acute; [parlist] `<b>)</b>&acute; block <b>end</b>
-</pre>
-
-<p>
-The following syntactic sugar simplifies function definitions:
-
-<pre>
-	stat ::= <b>function</b> funcname funcbody
-	stat ::= <b>local</b> <b>function</b> Name funcbody
-	funcname ::= Name {`<b>.</b>&acute; Name} [`<b>:</b>&acute; Name]
-</pre><p>
-The statement
-
-<pre>
-     function f () <em>body</em> end
-</pre><p>
-translates to
-
-<pre>
-     f = function () <em>body</em> end
-</pre><p>
-The statement
-
-<pre>
-     function t.a.b.c.f () <em>body</em> end
-</pre><p>
-translates to
-
-<pre>
-     t.a.b.c.f = function () <em>body</em> end
-</pre><p>
-The statement
-
-<pre>
-     local function f () <em>body</em> end
-</pre><p>
-translates to
-
-<pre>
-     local f; f = function () <em>body</em> end
-</pre><p>
-<em>not</em> to
-
-<pre>
-     local f = function () <em>body</em> end
-</pre><p>
-(This only makes a difference when the body of the function
-contains references to <code>f</code>.)
-
-
-<p>
-A function definition is an executable expression,
-whose value has type <em>function</em>.
-When Lua pre-compiles a chunk,
-all its function bodies are pre-compiled too.
-Then, whenever Lua executes the function definition,
-the function is <em>instantiated</em> (or <em>closed</em>).
-This function instance (or <em>closure</em>)
-is the final value of the expression.
-Different instances of the same function
-may refer to different  external local variables
-and may have different environment tables.
-
-
-<p>
-Parameters act as local variables that are
-initialized with the argument values:
-
-<pre>
-	parlist ::= namelist [`<b>,</b>&acute; `<b>...</b>&acute;] | `<b>...</b>&acute;
-</pre><p>
-When a function is called,
-the list of arguments is adjusted to
-the length of the list of parameters,
-unless the function is a variadic or <em>vararg function</em>,
-which is
-indicated by three dots ('<code>...</code>') at the end of its parameter list.
-A vararg function does not adjust its argument list;
-instead, it collects all extra arguments and supplies them
-to the function through a <em>vararg expression</em>,
-which is also written as three dots.
-The value of this expression is a list of all actual extra arguments,
-similar to a function with multiple results.
-If a vararg expression is used inside another expression
-or in the middle of a list of expressions,
-then its return list is adjusted to one element.
-If the expression is used as the last element of a list of expressions,
-then no adjustment is made
-(unless the call is enclosed in parentheses).
-
-
-<p>
-As an example, consider the following definitions:
-
-<pre>
-     function f(a, b) end
-     function g(a, b, ...) end
-     function r() return 1,2,3 end
-</pre><p>
-Then, we have the following mapping from arguments to parameters and
-to the vararg expression:
-
-<pre>
-     CALL            PARAMETERS
-     
-     f(3)             a=3, b=nil
-     f(3, 4)          a=3, b=4
-     f(3, 4, 5)       a=3, b=4
-     f(r(), 10)       a=1, b=10
-     f(r())           a=1, b=2
-     
-     g(3)             a=3, b=nil, ... --&gt;  (nothing)
-     g(3, 4)          a=3, b=4,   ... --&gt;  (nothing)
-     g(3, 4, 5, 8)    a=3, b=4,   ... --&gt;  5  8
-     g(5, r())        a=5, b=1,   ... --&gt;  2  3
-</pre>
-
-<p>
-Results are returned using the <b>return</b> statement (see <a href="#2.4.4">&sect;2.4.4</a>).
-If control reaches the end of a function
-without encountering a <b>return</b> statement,
-then the function returns with no results.
-
-
-<p>
-The <em>colon</em> syntax
-is used for defining <em>methods</em>,
-that is, functions that have an implicit extra parameter <code>self</code>.
-Thus, the statement
-
-<pre>
-     function t.a.b.c:f (<em>params</em>) <em>body</em> end
-</pre><p>
-is syntactic sugar for
-
-<pre>
-     t.a.b.c.f = function (self, <em>params</em>) <em>body</em> end
-</pre>
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<h2>2.6 - <a name="2.6">Visibility Rules</a></h2>
-
-<p>
-
-Lua is a lexically scoped language.
-The scope of variables begins at the first statement <em>after</em>
-their declaration and lasts until the end of the innermost block that
-includes the declaration.
-Consider the following example:
-
-<pre>
-     x = 10                -- global variable
-     do                    -- new block
-       local x = x         -- new 'x', with value 10
-       print(x)            --&gt; 10
-       x = x+1
-       do                  -- another block
-         local x = x+1     -- another 'x'
-         print(x)          --&gt; 12
-       end
-       print(x)            --&gt; 11
-     end
-     print(x)              --&gt; 10  (the global one)
-</pre>
-
-<p>
-Notice that, in a declaration like <code>local x = x</code>,
-the new <code>x</code> being declared is not in scope yet,
-and so the second <code>x</code> refers to the outside variable.
-
-
-<p>
-Because of the lexical scoping rules,
-local variables can be freely accessed by functions
-defined inside their scope.
-A local variable used by an inner function is called
-an <em>upvalue</em>, or <em>external local variable</em>,
-inside the inner function.
-
-
-<p>
-Notice that each execution of a <b>local</b> statement
-defines new local variables.
-Consider the following example:
-
-<pre>
-     a = {}
-     local x = 20
-     for i=1,10 do
-       local y = 0
-       a[i] = function () y=y+1; return x+y end
-     end
-</pre><p>
-The loop creates ten closures
-(that is, ten instances of the anonymous function).
-Each of these closures uses a different <code>y</code> variable,
-while all of them share the same <code>x</code>.
-
-
-
-
-
-<h2>2.7 - <a name="2.7">Error Handling</a></h2>
-
-<p>
-Because Lua is an embedded extension language,
-all Lua actions start from C&nbsp;code in the host program
-calling a function from the Lua library (see <a href="#lua_pcall"><code>lua_pcall</code></a>).
-Whenever an error occurs during Lua compilation or execution,
-control returns to C,
-which can take appropriate measures
-(such as printing an error message).
-
-
-<p>
-Lua code can explicitly generate an error by calling the
-<a href="#pdf-error"><code>error</code></a> function.
-If you need to catch errors in Lua,
-you can use the <a href="#pdf-pcall"><code>pcall</code></a> function.
-
-
-
-
-
-<h2>2.8 - <a name="2.8">Metatables</a></h2>
-
-<p>
-Every value in Lua may have a <em>metatable</em>.
-This <em>metatable</em> is an ordinary Lua table
-that defines the behavior of the original value
-under certain special operations.
-You can change several aspects of the behavior
-of operations over a value by setting specific fields in its metatable.
-For instance, when a non-numeric value is the operand of an addition,
-Lua checks for a function in the field <code>"__add"</code> in its metatable.
-If it finds one,
-Lua calls this function to perform the addition.
-
-
-<p>
-We call the keys in a metatable <em>events</em>
-and the values <em>metamethods</em>.
-In the previous example, the event is <code>"add"</code> 
-and the metamethod is the function that performs the addition.
-
-
-<p>
-You can query the metatable of any value
-through the <a href="#pdf-getmetatable"><code>getmetatable</code></a> function.
-
-
-<p>
-You can replace the metatable of tables
-through the <a href="#pdf-setmetatable"><code>setmetatable</code></a>
-function.
-You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua
-(except using the debug library);
-you must use the C&nbsp;API for that.
-
-
-<p>
-Tables and full userdata have individual metatables
-(although multiple tables and userdata can share their metatables);
-values of all other types share one single metatable per type.
-So, there is one single metatable for all numbers,
-one for all strings, etc.
-
-
-<p>
-A metatable may control how an object behaves in arithmetic operations,
-order comparisons, concatenation, length operation, and indexing.
-A metatable can also define a function to be called when a userdata
-is garbage collected.
-For each of these operations Lua associates a specific key
-called an <em>event</em>.
-When Lua performs one of these operations over a value,
-it checks whether this value has a metatable with the corresponding event.
-If so, the value associated with that key (the metamethod)
-controls how Lua will perform the operation.
-
-
-<p>
-Metatables control the operations listed next.
-Each operation is identified by its corresponding name.
-The key for each operation is a string with its name prefixed by
-two underscores, '<code>__</code>';
-for instance, the key for operation "add" is the
-string <code>"__add"</code>.
-The semantics of these operations is better explained by a Lua function
-describing how the interpreter executes the operation.
-
-
-<p>
-The code shown here in Lua is only illustrative;
-the real behavior is hard coded in the interpreter
-and it is much more efficient than this simulation.
-All functions used in these descriptions
-(<a href="#pdf-rawget"><code>rawget</code></a>, <a href="#pdf-tonumber"><code>tonumber</code></a>, etc.)
-are described in <a href="#5.1">&sect;5.1</a>.
-In particular, to retrieve the metamethod of a given object,
-we use the expression
-
-<pre>
-     metatable(obj)[event]
-</pre><p>
-This should be read as
-
-<pre>
-     rawget(getmetatable(obj) or {}, event)
-</pre><p>
-
-That is, the access to a metamethod does not invoke other metamethods,
-and the access to objects with no metatables does not fail
-(it simply results in <b>nil</b>).
-
-
-
-<ul>
-
-<li><b>"add":</b>
-the <code>+</code> operation.
-
-
-
-<p>
-The function <code>getbinhandler</code> below defines how Lua chooses a handler
-for a binary operation.
-First, Lua tries the first operand.
-If its type does not define a handler for the operation,
-then Lua tries the second operand.
-
-<pre>
-     function getbinhandler (op1, op2, event)
-       return metatable(op1)[event] or metatable(op2)[event]
-     end
-</pre><p>
-By using this function,
-the behavior of the <code>op1 + op2</code> is
-
-<pre>
-     function add_event (op1, op2)
-       local o1, o2 = tonumber(op1), tonumber(op2)
-       if o1 and o2 then  -- both operands are numeric?
-         return o1 + o2   -- '+' here is the primitive 'add'
-       else  -- at least one of the operands is not numeric
-         local h = getbinhandler(op1, op2, "__add")
-         if h then
-           -- call the handler with both operands
-           return (h(op1, op2))
-         else  -- no handler available: default behavior
-           error(&middot;&middot;&middot;)
-         end
-       end
-     end
-</pre><p>
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"sub":</b>
-the <code>-</code> operation.
-
-Behavior similar to the "add" operation.
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"mul":</b>
-the <code>*</code> operation.
-
-Behavior similar to the "add" operation.
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"div":</b>
-the <code>/</code> operation.
-
-Behavior similar to the "add" operation.
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"mod":</b>
-the <code>%</code> operation.
-
-Behavior similar to the "add" operation,
-with the operation
-<code>o1 - floor(o1/o2)*o2</code> as the primitive operation.
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"pow":</b>
-the <code>^</code> (exponentiation) operation.
-
-Behavior similar to the "add" operation,
-with the function <code>pow</code> (from the C&nbsp;math library)
-as the primitive operation.
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"unm":</b>
-the unary <code>-</code> operation.
-
-
-<pre>
-     function unm_event (op)
-       local o = tonumber(op)
-       if o then  -- operand is numeric?
-         return -o  -- '-' here is the primitive 'unm'
-       else  -- the operand is not numeric.
-         -- Try to get a handler from the operand
-         local h = metatable(op).__unm
-         if h then
-           -- call the handler with the operand
-           return (h(op))
-         else  -- no handler available: default behavior
-           error(&middot;&middot;&middot;)
-         end
-       end
-     end
-</pre><p>
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"concat":</b>
-the <code>..</code> (concatenation) operation.
-
-
-<pre>
-     function concat_event (op1, op2)
-       if (type(op1) == "string" or type(op1) == "number") and
-          (type(op2) == "string" or type(op2) == "number") then
-         return op1 .. op2  -- primitive string concatenation
-       else
-         local h = getbinhandler(op1, op2, "__concat")
-         if h then
-           return (h(op1, op2))
-         else
-           error(&middot;&middot;&middot;)
-         end
-       end
-     end
-</pre><p>
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"len":</b>
-the <code>#</code> operation.
-
-
-<pre>
-     function len_event (op)
-       if type(op) == "string" then
-         return strlen(op)         -- primitive string length
-       elseif type(op) == "table" then
-         return #op                -- primitive table length
-       else
-         local h = metatable(op).__len
-         if h then
-           -- call the handler with the operand
-           return (h(op))
-         else  -- no handler available: default behavior
-           error(&middot;&middot;&middot;)
-         end
-       end
-     end
-</pre><p>
-See <a href="#2.5.5">&sect;2.5.5</a> for a description of the length of a table.
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"eq":</b>
-the <code>==</code> operation.
-
-The function <code>getcomphandler</code> defines how Lua chooses a metamethod
-for comparison operators.
-A metamethod only is selected when both objects
-being compared have the same type
-and the same metamethod for the selected operation.
-
-<pre>
-     function getcomphandler (op1, op2, event)
-       if type(op1) ~= type(op2) then return nil end
-       local mm1 = metatable(op1)[event]
-       local mm2 = metatable(op2)[event]
-       if mm1 == mm2 then return mm1 else return nil end
-     end
-</pre><p>
-The "eq" event is defined as follows:
-
-<pre>
-     function eq_event (op1, op2)
-       if type(op1) ~= type(op2) then  -- different types?
-         return false   -- different objects
-       end
-       if op1 == op2 then   -- primitive equal?
-         return true   -- objects are equal
-       end
-       -- try metamethod
-       local h = getcomphandler(op1, op2, "__eq")
-       if h then
-         return (h(op1, op2))
-       else
-         return false
-       end
-     end
-</pre><p>
-<code>a ~= b</code> is equivalent to <code>not (a == b)</code>.
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"lt":</b>
-the <code>&lt;</code> operation.
-
-
-<pre>
-     function lt_event (op1, op2)
-       if type(op1) == "number" and type(op2) == "number" then
-         return op1 &lt; op2   -- numeric comparison
-       elseif type(op1) == "string" and type(op2) == "string" then
-         return op1 &lt; op2   -- lexicographic comparison
-       else
-         local h = getcomphandler(op1, op2, "__lt")
-         if h then
-           return (h(op1, op2))
-         else
-           error(&middot;&middot;&middot;);
-         end
-       end
-     end
-</pre><p>
-<code>a &gt; b</code> is equivalent to <code>b &lt; a</code>.
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"le":</b>
-the <code>&lt;=</code> operation.
-
-
-<pre>
-     function le_event (op1, op2)
-       if type(op1) == "number" and type(op2) == "number" then
-         return op1 &lt;= op2   -- numeric comparison
-       elseif type(op1) == "string" and type(op2) == "string" then
-         return op1 &lt;= op2   -- lexicographic comparison
-       else
-         local h = getcomphandler(op1, op2, "__le")
-         if h then
-           return (h(op1, op2))
-         else
-           h = getcomphandler(op1, op2, "__lt")
-           if h then
-             return not h(op2, op1)
-           else
-             error(&middot;&middot;&middot;);
-           end
-         end
-       end
-     end
-</pre><p>
-<code>a &gt;= b</code> is equivalent to <code>b &lt;= a</code>.
-Note that, in the absence of a "le" metamethod,
-Lua tries the "lt", assuming that <code>a &lt;= b</code> is
-equivalent to <code>not (b &lt; a)</code>.
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"index":</b>
-The indexing access <code>table[key]</code>.
-
-
-<pre>
-     function gettable_event (table, key)
-       local h
-       if type(table) == "table" then
-         local v = rawget(table, key)
-         if v ~= nil then return v end
-         h = metatable(table).__index
-         if h == nil then return nil end
-       else
-         h = metatable(table).__index
-         if h == nil then
-           error(&middot;&middot;&middot;);
-         end
-       end
-       if type(h) == "function" then
-         return (h(table, key))     -- call the handler
-       else return h[key]           -- or repeat operation on it
-       end
-     end
-</pre><p>
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"newindex":</b>
-The indexing assignment <code>table[key] = value</code>.
-
-
-<pre>
-     function settable_event (table, key, value)
-       local h
-       if type(table) == "table" then
-         local v = rawget(table, key)
-         if v ~= nil then rawset(table, key, value); return end
-         h = metatable(table).__newindex
-         if h == nil then rawset(table, key, value); return end
-       else
-         h = metatable(table).__newindex
-         if h == nil then
-           error(&middot;&middot;&middot;);
-         end
-       end
-       if type(h) == "function" then
-         h(table, key,value)           -- call the handler
-       else h[key] = value             -- or repeat operation on it
-       end
-     end
-</pre><p>
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"call":</b>
-called when Lua calls a value.
-
-
-<pre>
-     function function_event (func, ...)
-       if type(func) == "function" then
-         return func(...)   -- primitive call
-       else
-         local h = metatable(func).__call
-         if h then
-           return h(func, ...)
-         else
-           error(&middot;&middot;&middot;)
-         end
-       end
-     end
-</pre><p>
-</li>
-
-</ul>
-
-
-
-
-<h2>2.9 - <a name="2.9">Environments</a></h2>
-
-<p>
-Besides metatables,
-objects of types thread, function, and userdata
-have another table associated with them,
-called their <em>environment</em>.
-Like metatables, environments are regular tables and
-multiple objects can share the same environment.
-
-
-<p>
-Environments associated with userdata have no meaning for Lua.
-It is only a convenience feature for programmers to associate a table to
-a userdata.
-
-
-<p>
-Environments associated with threads are called
-<em>global environments</em>.
-They are used as the default environment for their threads and
-non-nested functions created by the thread
-(through <a href="#pdf-loadfile"><code>loadfile</code></a>, <a href="#pdf-loadstring"><code>loadstring</code></a> or <a href="#pdf-load"><code>load</code></a>)
-and can be directly accessed by C&nbsp;code (see <a href="#3.3">&sect;3.3</a>).
-
-
-<p>
-Environments associated with C&nbsp;functions can be directly
-accessed by C&nbsp;code (see <a href="#3.3">&sect;3.3</a>).
-They are used as the default environment for other C&nbsp;functions
-created by the function.
-
-
-<p>
-Environments associated with Lua functions are used to resolve
-all accesses to global variables within the function (see <a href="#2.3">&sect;2.3</a>).
-They are used as the default environment for other Lua functions
-created by the function.
-
-
-<p>
-You can change the environment of a Lua function or the
-running thread by calling <a href="#pdf-setfenv"><code>setfenv</code></a>.
-You can get the environment of a Lua function or the running thread
-by calling <a href="#pdf-getfenv"><code>getfenv</code></a>.
-To manipulate the environment of other objects
-(userdata, C&nbsp;functions, other threads) you must
-use the C&nbsp;API.
-
-
-
-
-
-<h2>2.10 - <a name="2.10">Garbage Collection</a></h2>
-
-<p>
-Lua performs automatic memory management.
-This means that
-you have to worry neither about allocating memory for new objects
-nor about freeing it when the objects are no longer needed.
-Lua manages memory automatically by running
-a <em>garbage collector</em> from time to time
-to collect all <em>dead objects</em>
-(that is, these objects that are no longer accessible from Lua).
-All objects in Lua are subject to automatic management:
-tables, userdata, functions, threads, and strings.
-
-
-<p>
-Lua implements an incremental mark-and-sweep collector.
-It uses two numbers to control its garbage-collection cycles:
-the <em>garbage-collector pause</em> and
-the <em>garbage-collector step multiplier</em>.
-
-
-<p>
-The garbage-collector pause
-controls how long the collector waits before starting a new cycle.
-Larger values make the collector less aggressive.
-Values smaller than 1 mean the collector will not wait to
-start a new cycle.
-A value of 2 means that the collector waits for the total memory in use
-to double before starting a new cycle.
-
-
-<p>
-The step multiplier
-controls the relative speed of the collector relative to
-memory allocation.
-Larger values make the collector more aggressive but also increase
-the size of each incremental step.
-Values smaller than 1 make the collector too slow and
-may result in  the collector never finishing a cycle.
-The default, 2, means that the collector runs at "twice"
-the speed of memory allocation.
-
-
-<p>
-You can change these numbers by calling <a href="#lua_gc"><code>lua_gc</code></a> in C
-or <a href="#pdf-collectgarbage"><code>collectgarbage</code></a> in Lua.
-Both get percentage points as arguments
-(so an argument of 100 means a real value of 1).
-With these functions you can also control 
-the collector directly (e.g., stop and restart it).
-
-
-
-<h3>2.10.1 - <a name="2.10.1">Garbage-Collection Metamethods</a></h3>
-
-<p>
-Using the C&nbsp;API,
-you can set garbage-collector metamethods for userdata (see <a href="#2.8">&sect;2.8</a>).
-These metamethods are also called <em>finalizers</em>.
-Finalizers allow you to coordinate Lua's garbage collection
-with external resource management
-(such as closing files, network or database connections,
-or freeing your own memory).
-
-
-<p>
-Garbage userdata with a field <code>__gc</code> in their metatables are not
-collected immediately by the garbage collector.
-Instead, Lua puts them in a list.
-After the collection,
-Lua does the equivalent of the following function
-for each userdata in that list:
-
-<pre>
-     function gc_event (udata)
-       local h = metatable(udata).__gc
-       if h then
-         h(udata)
-       end
-     end
-</pre>
-
-<p>
-At the end of each garbage-collection cycle,
-the finalizers for userdata are called in <em>reverse</em>
-order of their creation,
-among those collected in that cycle.
-That is, the first finalizer to be called is the one associated
-with the userdata created last in the program.
-The userdata itself is freed only in the next garbage-collection cycle.
-
-
-
-
-
-<h3>2.10.2 - <a name="2.10.2">Weak Tables</a></h3>
-
-<p>
-A <em>weak table</em> is a table whose elements are
-<em>weak references</em>.
-A weak reference is ignored by the garbage collector.
-In other words,
-if the only references to an object are weak references,
-then the garbage collector will collect this object.
-
-
-<p>
-A weak table can have weak keys, weak values, or both.
-A table with weak keys allows the collection of its keys,
-but prevents the collection of its values.
-A table with both weak keys and weak values allows the collection of
-both keys and values.
-In any case, if either the key or the value is collected,
-the whole pair is removed from the table.
-The weakness of a table is controlled by the
-<code>__mode</code> field of its metatable.
-If the <code>__mode</code> field is a string containing the character&nbsp;'<code>k</code>',
-the keys in the table are weak.
-If <code>__mode</code> contains '<code>v</code>',
-the values in the table are weak.
-
-
-<p>
-After you use a table as a metatable,
-you should not change the value of its field <code>__mode</code>.
-Otherwise, the weak behavior of the tables controlled by this
-metatable is undefined.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<h2>2.11 - <a name="2.11">Coroutines</a></h2>
-
-<p>
-Lua supports coroutines,
-also called <em>collaborative multithreading</em>.
-A coroutine in Lua represents an independent thread of execution.
-Unlike threads in multithread systems, however,
-a coroutine only suspends its execution by explicitly calling
-a yield function.
-
-
-<p>
-You create a coroutine with a call to <a href="#pdf-coroutine.create"><code>coroutine.create</code></a>.
-Its sole argument is a function
-that is the main function of the coroutine.
-The <code>create</code> function only creates a new coroutine and
-returns a handle to it (an object of type <em>thread</em>);
-it does not start the coroutine execution.
-
-
-<p>
-When you first call <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a>,
-passing as its first argument
-the thread returned by <a href="#pdf-coroutine.create"><code>coroutine.create</code></a>,
-the coroutine starts its execution,
-at the first line of its main function.
-Extra arguments passed to <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a> are passed on
-to the coroutine main function.
-After the coroutine starts running,
-it runs until it terminates or <em>yields</em>.
-
-
-<p>
-A coroutine can terminate its execution in two ways:
-normally, when its main function returns
-(explicitly or implicitly, after the last instruction);
-and abnormally, if there is an unprotected error.
-In the first case, <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a> returns <b>true</b>,
-plus any values returned by the coroutine main function.
-In case of errors, <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a> returns <b>false</b>
-plus an error message.
-
-
-<p>
-A coroutine yields by calling <a href="#pdf-coroutine.yield"><code>coroutine.yield</code></a>.
-When a coroutine yields,
-the corresponding <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a> returns immediately,
-even if the yield happens inside nested function calls
-(that is, not in the main function,
-but in a function directly or indirectly called by the main function).
-In the case of a yield, <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a> also returns <b>true</b>,
-plus any values passed to <a href="#pdf-coroutine.yield"><code>coroutine.yield</code></a>.
-The next time you resume the same coroutine,
-it continues its execution from the point where it yielded,
-with the call to <a href="#pdf-coroutine.yield"><code>coroutine.yield</code></a> returning any extra
-arguments passed to <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a>.
-
-
-<p>
-Like <a href="#pdf-coroutine.create"><code>coroutine.create</code></a>,
-the <a href="#pdf-coroutine.wrap"><code>coroutine.wrap</code></a> function also creates a coroutine,
-but instead of returning the coroutine itself,
-it returns a function that, when called, resumes the coroutine.
-Any arguments passed to this function
-go as extra arguments to <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a>.
-<a href="#pdf-coroutine.wrap"><code>coroutine.wrap</code></a> returns all the values returned by <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a>,
-except the first one (the boolean error code).
-Unlike <a href="#pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume</code></a>,
-<a href="#pdf-coroutine.wrap"><code>coroutine.wrap</code></a> does not catch errors;
-any error is propagated to the caller.
-
-
-<p>
-As an example,
-consider the following code:
-
-<pre>
-     function foo (a)
-       print("foo", a)
-       return coroutine.yield(2*a)
-     end
-     
-     co = coroutine.create(function (a,b)
-           print("co-body", a, b)
-           local r = foo(a+1)
-           print("co-body", r)
-           local r, s = coroutine.yield(a+b, a-b)
-           print("co-body", r, s)
-           return b, "end"
-     end)
-            
-     print("main", coroutine.resume(co, 1, 10))
-     print("main", coroutine.resume(co, "r"))
-     print("main", coroutine.resume(co, "x", "y"))
-     print("main", coroutine.resume(co, "x", "y"))
-</pre><p>
-When you run it, it produces the following output:
-
-<pre>
-     co-body 1       10
-     foo     2
-     
-     main    true    4
-     co-body r
-     main    true    11      -9
-     co-body x       y
-     main    true    10      end
-     main    false   cannot resume dead coroutine
-</pre>
-
-
-
-
-<h1>3 - <a name="3">The Application Program Interface</a></h1>
-
-<p>
-
-This section describes the C&nbsp;API for Lua, that is,
-the set of C&nbsp;functions available to the host program to communicate
-with Lua.
-All API functions and related types and constants
-are declared in the header file <a name="pdf-lua.h"><code>lua.h</code></a>.
-
-
-<p>
-Even when we use the term "function",
-any facility in the API may be provided as a macro instead.
-All such macros use each of their arguments exactly once
-(except for the first argument, which is always a Lua state),
-and so do not generate any hidden side-effects.
-
-
-<p>
-As in most C&nbsp;libraries,
-the Lua API functions do not check their arguments for validity or consistency.
-However, you can change this behavior by compiling Lua
-with a proper definition for the macro <a name="pdf-luai_apicheck"><code>luai_apicheck</code></a>,
-in file <code>luaconf.h</code>.
-
-
-
-<h2>3.1 - <a name="3.1">The Stack</a></h2>
-
-<p>
-Lua uses a <em>virtual stack</em> to pass values to and from C.
-Each element in this stack represents a Lua value
-(<b>nil</b>, number, string, etc.).
-
-
-<p>
-Whenever Lua calls C, the called function gets a new stack,
-which is independent of previous stacks and of stacks of
-C&nbsp;functions that are still active.
-This stack initially contains any arguments to the C&nbsp;function
-and it is where the C&nbsp;function pushes its results
-to be returned to the caller (see <a href="#lua_CFunction"><code>lua_CFunction</code></a>).
-
-
-<p>
-For convenience,
-most query operations in the API do not follow a strict stack discipline.
-Instead, they can refer to any element in the stack
-by using an <em>index</em>:
-A positive index represents an <em>absolute</em> stack position
-(starting at&nbsp;1);
-a negative index represents an <em>offset</em> relative to the top of the stack.
-More specifically, if the stack has <em>n</em> elements,
-then index&nbsp;1 represents the first element
-(that is, the element that was pushed onto the stack first)
-and
-index&nbsp;<em>n</em> represents the last element;
-index&nbsp;-1 also represents the last element
-(that is, the element at the&nbsp;top)
-and index <em>-n</em> represents the first element.
-We say that an index is <em>valid</em>
-if it lies between&nbsp;1 and the stack top
-(that is, if <code>1 &le; abs(index) &le; top</code>).
- 
-
-
-
-
-
-<h2>3.2 - <a name="3.2">Stack Size</a></h2>
-
-<p>
-When you interact with Lua API,
-you are responsible for ensuring consistency.
-In particular,
-<em>you are responsible for controlling stack overflow</em>.
-You can use the function <a href="#lua_checkstack"><code>lua_checkstack</code></a>
-to grow the stack size.
-
-
-<p>
-Whenever Lua calls C,
-it ensures that at least <a name="pdf-LUA_MINSTACK"><code>LUA_MINSTACK</code></a> stack positions are available.
-<code>LUA_MINSTACK</code> is defined as 20,
-so that usually you do not have to worry about stack space
-unless your code has loops pushing elements onto the stack.
-
-
-<p>
-Most query functions accept as indices any value inside the
-available stack space, that is, indices up to the maximum stack size
-you have set through <a href="#lua_checkstack"><code>lua_checkstack</code></a>.
-Such indices are called <em>acceptable indices</em>.
-More formally, we define an <em>acceptable index</em>
-as follows:
-
-<pre>
-     (index &lt; 0 &amp;&amp; abs(index) &lt;= top) ||
-     (index &gt; 0 &amp;&amp; index &lt;= stackspace)
-</pre><p>
-Note that 0 is never an acceptable index.
-
-
-
-
-
-<h2>3.3 - <a name="3.3">Pseudo-Indices</a></h2>
-
-<p>
-Unless otherwise noted,
-any function that accepts valid indices can also be called with
-<em>pseudo-indices</em>,
-which represent some Lua values that are accessible to C&nbsp;code
-but which are not in the stack.
-Pseudo-indices are used to access the thread environment,
-the function environment,
-the registry,
-and the upvalues of a C&nbsp;function (see <a href="#3.4">&sect;3.4</a>).
-
-
-<p>
-The thread environment (where global variables live) is
-always at pseudo-index <a name="pdf-LUA_GLOBALSINDEX"><code>LUA_GLOBALSINDEX</code></a>.
-The environment of the running C&nbsp;function is always
-at pseudo-index <a name="pdf-LUA_ENVIRONINDEX"><code>LUA_ENVIRONINDEX</code></a>.
-
-
-<p>
-To access and change the value of global variables,
-you can use regular table operations over an environment table.
-For instance, to access the value of a global variable, do
-
-<pre>
-     lua_getfield(L, LUA_GLOBALSINDEX, varname);
-</pre>
-
-
-
-
-<h2>3.4 - <a name="3.4">C Closures</a></h2>
-
-<p>
-When a C&nbsp;function is created,
-it is possible to associate some values with it,
-thus creating a <em>C&nbsp;closure</em>;
-these values are called <em>upvalues</em> and are
-accessible to the function whenever it is called
-(see <a href="#lua_pushcclosure"><code>lua_pushcclosure</code></a>).
-
-
-<p>
-Whenever a C&nbsp;function is called,
-its upvalues are located at specific pseudo-indices.
-These pseudo-indices are produced by the macro
-<a name="lua_upvalueindex"><code>lua_upvalueindex</code></a>.
-The first value associated with a function is at position
-<code>lua_upvalueindex(1)</code>, and so on.
-Any access to <code>lua_upvalueindex(<em>n</em>)</code>,
-where <em>n</em> is greater than the number of upvalues of the
-current function,
-produces an acceptable (but invalid) index.
-
-
-
-
-
-<h2>3.5 - <a name="3.5">Registry</a></h2>
-
-<p>
-Lua provides a <em>registry</em>,
-a pre-defined table that can be used by any C&nbsp;code to
-store whatever Lua value it needs to store.
-This table is always located at pseudo-index
-<a name="pdf-LUA_REGISTRYINDEX"><code>LUA_REGISTRYINDEX</code></a>.
-Any C&nbsp;library can store data into this table,
-but it should take care to choose keys different from those used
-by other libraries, to avoid collisions.
-Typically, you should use as key a string containing your library name
-or a light userdata with the address of a C&nbsp;object in your code.
-
-
-<p>
-The integer keys in the registry are used by the reference mechanism,
-implemented by the auxiliary library,
-and therefore should not be used for other purposes.
-
-
-
-
-
-<h2>3.6 - <a name="3.6">Error Handling in C</a></h2>
-
-<p>
-Internally, Lua uses the C <code>longjmp</code> facility to handle errors.
-(You can also choose to use exceptions if you use C++;
-see file <code>luaconf.h</code>.)
-When Lua faces any error
-(such as memory allocation errors, type errors, syntax errors,
-and runtime errors)
-it <em>raises</em> an error;
-that is, it does a long jump.
-A <em>protected environment</em> uses <code>setjmp</code>
-to set a recover point;
-any error jumps to the most recent active recover point.
-
-
-<p>
-Most functions in the API may throw an error,
-for instance due to a memory allocation error.
-The documentation for each function indicates whether
-it can throw errors.
-
-
-<p>
-Inside a C&nbsp;function you can throw an error by calling <a href="#lua_error"><code>lua_error</code></a>.
-
-
-
-
-
-<h2>3.7 - <a name="3.7">Functions and Types</a></h2>
-
-<p>
-Here we list all functions and types from the C&nbsp;API in
-alphabetical order.
-Each function has an indicator like this:
-<span class="apii">[-o, +p, <em>x</em>]</span>
-
-
-<p>
-The first field, <code>o</code>,
-is how many elements the function pops from the stack.
-The second field, <code>p</code>,
-is how many elements the function pushes onto the stack.
-(Any function always pushes its results after popping its arguments.)
-A field in the form <code>x|y</code> means the function may push (or pop)
-<code>x</code> or <code>y</code> elements,
-depending on the situation;
-an interrogation mark '<code>?</code>' means that
-we cannot know how many elements the function pops/pushes
-by looking only at its arguments
-(e.g., they may depend on what is on the stack).
-The third field, <code>x</code>,
-tells whether the function may throw errors:
-'<code>-</code>' means the function never throws any error;
-'<code>m</code>' means the function may throw an error
-only due to not enough memory;
-'<code>e</code>' means the function may throw other kinds of errors;
-'<code>v</code>' means the function may throw an error on purpose.
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_Alloc"><code>lua_Alloc</code></a></h3>
-<pre>typedef void * (*lua_Alloc) (void *ud,
-                             void *ptr,
-                             size_t osize,
-                             size_t nsize);</pre>
-
-<p>
-The type of the memory-allocation function used by Lua states.
-The allocator function must provide a
-functionality similar to <code>realloc</code>,
-but not exactly the same.
-Its arguments are
-<code>ud</code>, an opaque pointer passed to <a href="#lua_newstate"><code>lua_newstate</code></a>;
-<code>ptr</code>, a pointer to the block being allocated/reallocated/freed;
-<code>osize</code>, the original size of the block;
-<code>nsize</code>, the new size of the block.
-<code>ptr</code> is <code>NULL</code> if and only if <code>osize</code> is zero.
-When <code>nsize</code> is zero, the allocator must return <code>NULL</code>;
-if <code>osize</code> is not zero,
-it should free the block pointed to by <code>ptr</code>.
-When <code>nsize</code> is not zero, the allocator returns <code>NULL</code>
-if and only if it cannot fill the request.
-When <code>nsize</code> is not zero and <code>osize</code> is zero,
-the allocator should behave like <code>malloc</code>.
-When <code>nsize</code> and <code>osize</code> are not zero,
-the allocator behaves like <code>realloc</code>.
-Lua assumes that the allocator never fails when
-<code>osize &gt;= nsize</code>.
-
-
-<p>
-Here is a simple implementation for the allocator function.
-It is used in the auxiliary library by <a href="#luaL_newstate"><code>luaL_newstate</code></a>.
-
-<pre>
-     static void *l_alloc (void *ud, void *ptr, size_t osize,
-                                                size_t nsize) {
-       (void)ud;  (void)osize;  /* not used */
-       if (nsize == 0) {
-         free(ptr);
-         return NULL;
-       }
-       else
-         return realloc(ptr, nsize);
-     }
-</pre><p>
-This code assumes
-that <code>free(NULL)</code> has no effect and that
-<code>realloc(NULL, size)</code> is equivalent to <code>malloc(size)</code>.
-ANSI&nbsp;C ensures both behaviors.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_atpanic"><code>lua_atpanic</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>lua_CFunction lua_atpanic (lua_State *L, lua_CFunction panicf);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Sets a new panic function and returns the old one.
-
-
-<p>
-If an error happens outside any protected environment,
-Lua calls a <em>panic function</em>
-and then calls <code>exit(EXIT_FAILURE)</code>,
-thus exiting the host application.
-Your panic function may avoid this exit by
-never returning (e.g., doing a long jump).
-
-
-<p>
-The panic function can access the error message at the top of the stack.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_call"><code>lua_call</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-(nargs + 1), +nresults, <em>e</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_call (lua_State *L, int nargs, int nresults);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Calls a function.
-
-
-<p>
-To call a function you must use the following protocol:
-first, the function to be called is pushed onto the stack;
-then, the arguments to the function are pushed
-in direct order;
-that is, the first argument is pushed first.
-Finally you call <a href="#lua_call"><code>lua_call</code></a>;
-<code>nargs</code> is the number of arguments that you pushed onto the stack.
-All arguments and the function value are popped from the stack
-when the function is called.
-The function results are pushed onto the stack when the function returns.
-The number of results is adjusted to <code>nresults</code>,
-unless <code>nresults</code> is <a name="pdf-LUA_MULTRET"><code>LUA_MULTRET</code></a>.
-In this case, <em>all</em> results from the function are pushed.
-Lua takes care that the returned values fit into the stack space.
-The function results are pushed onto the stack in direct order
-(the first result is pushed first),
-so that after the call the last result is on the top of the stack.
-
-
-<p>
-Any error inside the called function is propagated upwards
-(with a <code>longjmp</code>).
-
-
-<p>
-The following example shows how the host program may do the
-equivalent to this Lua code:
-
-<pre>
-     a = f("how", t.x, 14)
-</pre><p>
-Here it is in&nbsp;C:
-
-<pre>
-     lua_getfield(L, LUA_GLOBALSINDEX, "f"); /* function to be called */
-     lua_pushstring(L, "how");                        /* 1st argument */
-     lua_getfield(L, LUA_GLOBALSINDEX, "t");   /* table to be indexed */
-     lua_getfield(L, -1, "x");        /* push result of t.x (2nd arg) */
-     lua_remove(L, -2);                  /* remove 't' from the stack */
-     lua_pushinteger(L, 14);                          /* 3rd argument */
-     lua_call(L, 3, 1);     /* call 'f' with 3 arguments and 1 result */
-     lua_setfield(L, LUA_GLOBALSINDEX, "a");        /* set global 'a' */
-</pre><p>
-Note that the code above is "balanced":
-at its end, the stack is back to its original configuration.
-This is considered good programming practice.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_CFunction"><code>lua_CFunction</code></a></h3>
-<pre>typedef int (*lua_CFunction) (lua_State *L);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Type for C&nbsp;functions.
-
-
-<p>
-In order to communicate properly with Lua,
-a C&nbsp;function must use the following protocol,
-which defines the way parameters and results are passed:
-a C&nbsp;function receives its arguments from Lua in its stack
-in direct order (the first argument is pushed first).
-So, when the function starts,
-<code>lua_gettop(L)</code> returns the number of arguments received by the function.
-The first argument (if any) is at index 1
-and its last argument is at index <code>lua_gettop(L)</code>.
-To return values to Lua, a C&nbsp;function just pushes them onto the stack,
-in direct order (the first result is pushed first),
-and returns the number of results.
-Any other value in the stack below the results will be properly
-discarded by Lua.
-Like a Lua function, a C&nbsp;function called by Lua can also return
-many results.
-
-
-<p>
-As an example, the following function receives a variable number
-of numerical arguments and returns their average and sum:
-
-<pre>
-     static int foo (lua_State *L) {
-       int n = lua_gettop(L);    /* number of arguments */
-       lua_Number sum = 0;
-       int i;
-       for (i = 1; i &lt;= n; i++) {
-         if (!lua_isnumber(L, i)) {
-           lua_pushstring(L, "incorrect argument");
-           lua_error(L);
-         }
-         sum += lua_tonumber(L, i);
-       }
-       lua_pushnumber(L, sum/n);        /* first result */
-       lua_pushnumber(L, sum);         /* second result */
-       return 2;                   /* number of results */
-     }
-</pre>
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_checkstack"><code>lua_checkstack</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_checkstack (lua_State *L, int extra);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Ensures that there are at least <code>extra</code> free stack slots in the stack.
-It returns false if it cannot grow the stack to that size.
-This function never shrinks the stack;
-if the stack is already larger than the new size,
-it is left unchanged.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_close"><code>lua_close</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_close (lua_State *L);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Destroys all objects in the given Lua state
-(calling the corresponding garbage-collection metamethods, if any)
-and frees all dynamic memory used by this state.
-On several platforms, you may not need to call this function,
-because all resources are naturally released when the host program ends.
-On the other hand, long-running programs,
-such as a daemon or a web server,
-might need to release states as soon as they are not needed,
-to avoid growing too large.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_concat"><code>lua_concat</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-n, +1, <em>e</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_concat (lua_State *L, int n);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Concatenates the <code>n</code> values at the top of the stack,
-pops them, and leaves the result at the top.
-If <code>n</code>&nbsp;is&nbsp;1, the result is the single value on the stack
-(that is, the function does nothing);
-if <code>n</code> is 0, the result is the empty string.
-Concatenation is performed following the usual semantics of Lua
-(see <a href="#2.5.4">&sect;2.5.4</a>).
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_cpcall"><code>lua_cpcall</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +(0|1), <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_cpcall (lua_State *L, lua_CFunction func, void *ud);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Calls the C&nbsp;function <code>func</code> in protected mode.
-<code>func</code> starts with only one element in its stack,
-a light userdata containing <code>ud</code>.
-In case of errors,
-<a href="#lua_cpcall"><code>lua_cpcall</code></a> returns the same error codes as <a href="#lua_pcall"><code>lua_pcall</code></a>,
-plus the error object on the top of the stack;
-otherwise, it returns zero, and does not change the stack.
-All values returned by <code>func</code> are discarded.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_createtable"><code>lua_createtable</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_createtable (lua_State *L, int narr, int nrec);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack.
-The new table has space pre-allocated
-for <code>narr</code> array elements and <code>nrec</code> non-array elements.
-This pre-allocation is useful when you know exactly how many elements
-the table will have.
-Otherwise you can use the function <a href="#lua_newtable"><code>lua_newtable</code></a>.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_dump"><code>lua_dump</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_dump (lua_State *L, lua_Writer writer, void *data);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Dumps a function as a binary chunk.
-Receives a Lua function on the top of the stack
-and produces a binary chunk that,
-if loaded again,
-results in a function equivalent to the one dumped.
-As it produces parts of the chunk,
-<a href="#lua_dump"><code>lua_dump</code></a> calls function <code>writer</code> (see <a href="#lua_Writer"><code>lua_Writer</code></a>)
-with the given <code>data</code>
-to write them.
-
-
-<p>
-The value returned is the error code returned by the last
-call to the writer;
-0&nbsp;means no errors.
-
-
-<p>
-This function does not pop the Lua function from the stack.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_equal"><code>lua_equal</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>e</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_equal (lua_State *L, int index1, int index2);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices <code>index1</code> and
-<code>index2</code> are equal,
-following the semantics of the Lua <code>==</code> operator
-(that is, may call metamethods).
-Otherwise returns&nbsp;0.
-Also returns&nbsp;0 if any of the indices is non valid.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_error"><code>lua_error</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-1, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_error (lua_State *L);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Generates a Lua error.
-The error message (which can actually be a Lua value of any type)
-must be on the stack top.
-This function does a long jump,
-and therefore never returns.
-(see <a href="#luaL_error"><code>luaL_error</code></a>).
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_gc"><code>lua_gc</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>e</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_gc (lua_State *L, int what, int data);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Controls the garbage collector.
-
-
-<p>
-This function performs several tasks,
-according to the value of the parameter <code>what</code>:
-
-<ul>
-
-<li><b><code>LUA_GCSTOP</code>:</b>
-stops the garbage collector.
-</li>
-
-<li><b><code>LUA_GCRESTART</code>:</b>
-restarts the garbage collector.
-</li>
-
-<li><b><code>LUA_GCCOLLECT</code>:</b>
-performs a full garbage-collection cycle.
-</li>
-
-<li><b><code>LUA_GCCOUNT</code>:</b>
-returns the current amount of memory (in Kbytes) in use by Lua.
-</li>
-
-<li><b><code>LUA_GCCOUNTB</code>:</b>
-returns the remainder of dividing the current amount of bytes of
-memory in use by Lua by 1024.
-</li>
-
-<li><b><code>LUA_GCSTEP</code>:</b>
-performs an incremental step of garbage collection.
-The step "size" is controlled by <code>data</code>
-(larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way.
-If you want to control the step size
-you must experimentally tune the value of <code>data</code>.
-The function returns 1 if the step finished a
-garbage-collection cycle.
-</li>
-
-<li><b><code>LUA_GCSETPAUSE</code>:</b>
-sets <code>data</code>/100 as the new value
-for the <em>pause</em> of the collector (see <a href="#2.10">&sect;2.10</a>).
-The function returns the previous value of the pause.
-</li>
-
-<li><b><code>LUA_GCSETSTEPMUL</code>:</b>
-sets <code>data</code>/100 as the new value for the <em>step multiplier</em> of
-the collector (see <a href="#2.10">&sect;2.10</a>).
-The function returns the previous value of the step multiplier.
-</li>
-
-</ul>
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_getallocf"><code>lua_getallocf</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>lua_Alloc lua_getallocf (lua_State *L, void **ud);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Returns the memory-allocation function of a given state.
-If <code>ud</code> is not <code>NULL</code>, Lua stores in <code>*ud</code> the
-opaque pointer passed to <a href="#lua_newstate"><code>lua_newstate</code></a>.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_getfenv"><code>lua_getfenv</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_getfenv (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Pushes onto the stack the environment table of
-the value at the given index.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_getfield"><code>lua_getfield</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>e</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_getfield (lua_State *L, int index, const char *k);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Pushes onto the stack the value <code>t[k]</code>,
-where <code>t</code> is the value at the given valid index.
-As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod
-for the "index" event (see <a href="#2.8">&sect;2.8</a>).
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_getglobal"><code>lua_getglobal</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>e</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_getglobal (lua_State *L, const char *name);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Pushes onto the stack the value of the global <code>name</code>.
-It is defined as a macro:
-
-<pre>
-     #define lua_getglobal(L,s)  lua_getfield(L, LUA_GLOBALSINDEX, s)
-</pre>
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_getmetatable"><code>lua_getmetatable</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +(0|1), <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_getmetatable (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Pushes onto the stack the metatable of the value at the given
-acceptable index.
-If the index is not valid,
-or if the value does not have a metatable,
-the function returns&nbsp;0 and pushes nothing on the stack.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_gettable"><code>lua_gettable</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-1, +1, <em>e</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_gettable (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Pushes onto the stack the value <code>t[k]</code>,
-where <code>t</code> is the value at the given valid index
-and <code>k</code> is the value at the top of the stack.
-
-
-<p>
-This function pops the key from the stack
-(putting the resulting value in its place).
-As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod
-for the "index" event (see <a href="#2.8">&sect;2.8</a>).
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_gettop"><code>lua_gettop</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_gettop (lua_State *L);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Returns the index of the top element in the stack.
-Because indices start at&nbsp;1,
-this result is equal to the number of elements in the stack
-(and so 0&nbsp;means an empty stack).
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_insert"><code>lua_insert</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-1, +1, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_insert (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Moves the top element into the given valid index,
-shifting up the elements above this index to open space.
-Cannot be called with a pseudo-index,
-because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_Integer"><code>lua_Integer</code></a></h3>
-<pre>typedef ptrdiff_t lua_Integer;</pre>
-
-<p>
-The type used by the Lua API to represent integral values.
-
-
-<p>
-By default it is a <code>ptrdiff_t</code>,
-which is usually the largest signed integral type the machine handles
-"comfortably".
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_isboolean"><code>lua_isboolean</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_isboolean (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index has type boolean,
-and 0&nbsp;otherwise.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_iscfunction"><code>lua_iscfunction</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_iscfunction (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a C&nbsp;function,
-and 0&nbsp;otherwise.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_isfunction"><code>lua_isfunction</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_isfunction (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a function
-(either C or Lua), and 0&nbsp;otherwise.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_islightuserdata"><code>lua_islightuserdata</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_islightuserdata (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a light userdata,
-and 0&nbsp;otherwise.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_isnil"><code>lua_isnil</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_isnil (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is <b>nil</b>,
-and 0&nbsp;otherwise.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_isnone"><code>lua_isnone</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_isnone (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid
-(that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack),
-and 0&nbsp;otherwise.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_isnoneornil"><code>lua_isnoneornil</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_isnoneornil (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Returns 1 if the given acceptable index is not valid
-(that is, it refers to an element outside the current stack)
-or if the value at this index is <b>nil</b>,
-and 0&nbsp;otherwise.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_isnumber"><code>lua_isnumber</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_isnumber (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a number
-or a string convertible to a number,
-and 0&nbsp;otherwise.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_isstring"><code>lua_isstring</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_isstring (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a string
-or a number (which is always convertible to a string),
-and 0&nbsp;otherwise.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_istable"><code>lua_istable</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_istable (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a table,
-and 0&nbsp;otherwise.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_isthread"><code>lua_isthread</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_isthread (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a thread,
-and 0&nbsp;otherwise.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_isuserdata"><code>lua_isuserdata</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_isuserdata (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Returns 1 if the value at the given acceptable index is a userdata
-(either full or light), and 0&nbsp;otherwise.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_lessthan"><code>lua_lessthan</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>e</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_lessthan (lua_State *L, int index1, int index2);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Returns 1 if the value at acceptable index <code>index1</code> is smaller
-than the value at acceptable index <code>index2</code>,
-following the semantics of the Lua <code>&lt;</code> operator
-(that is, may call metamethods).
-Otherwise returns&nbsp;0.
-Also returns&nbsp;0 if any of the indices is non valid.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_load (lua_State *L,
-              lua_Reader reader,
-              void *data,
-              const char *chunkname);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Loads a Lua chunk.
-If there are no errors,
-<a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a> pushes the compiled chunk as a Lua
-function on top of the stack.
-Otherwise, it pushes an error message.
-The return values of <a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a> are:
-
-<ul>
-
-<li><b>0:</b> no errors;</li>
-
-<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_ERRSYNTAX"><code>LUA_ERRSYNTAX</code></a>:</b>
-syntax error during pre-compilation;</li>
-
-<li><b><a href="#pdf-LUA_ERRMEM"><code>LUA_ERRMEM</code></a>:</b>
-memory allocation error.</li>
-
-</ul>
-
-<p>
-This function only loads a chunk;
-it does not run it.
-
-
-<p>
-<a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a> automatically detects whether the chunk is text or binary,
-and loads it accordingly (see program <code>luac</code>).
-
-
-<p>
-The <a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a> function uses a user-supplied <code>reader</code> function
-to read the chunk (see <a href="#lua_Reader"><code>lua_Reader</code></a>).
-The <code>data</code> argument is an opaque value passed to the reader function.
-
-
-<p>
-The <code>chunkname</code> argument gives a name to the chunk,
-which is used for error messages and in debug information (see <a href="#3.8">&sect;3.8</a>).
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_newstate"><code>lua_newstate</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>lua_State *lua_newstate (lua_Alloc f, void *ud);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Creates a new, independent state.
-Returns <code>NULL</code> if cannot create the state
-(due to lack of memory).
-The argument <code>f</code> is the allocator function;
-Lua does all memory allocation for this state through this function.
-The second argument, <code>ud</code>, is an opaque pointer that Lua
-simply passes to the allocator in every call.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_newtable"><code>lua_newtable</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_newtable (lua_State *L);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Creates a new empty table and pushes it onto the stack.
-It is equivalent to <code>lua_createtable(L, 0, 0)</code>.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_newthread"><code>lua_newthread</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>lua_State *lua_newthread (lua_State *L);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Creates a new thread, pushes it on the stack,
-and returns a pointer to a <a href="#lua_State"><code>lua_State</code></a> that represents this new thread.
-The new state returned by this function shares with the original state
-all global objects (such as tables),
-but has an independent execution stack.
-
-
-<p>
-There is no explicit function to close or to destroy a thread.
-Threads are subject to garbage collection,
-like any Lua object.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_newuserdata"><code>lua_newuserdata</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>void *lua_newuserdata (lua_State *L, size_t size);</pre>
-
-<p>
-This function allocates a new block of memory with the given size,
-pushes onto the stack a new full userdata with the block address,
-and returns this address.
-
-
-<p>
-Userdata represent C&nbsp;values in Lua.
-A <em>full userdata</em> represents a block of memory.
-It is an object (like a table):
-you must create it, it can have its own metatable,
-and you can detect when it is being collected.
-A full userdata is only equal to itself (under raw equality).
-
-
-<p>
-When Lua collects a full userdata with a <code>gc</code> metamethod,
-Lua calls the metamethod and marks the userdata as finalized.
-When this userdata is collected again then
-Lua frees its corresponding memory.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_next"><code>lua_next</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-1, +(2|0), <em>e</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_next (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Pops a key from the stack,
-and pushes a key-value pair from the table at the given index
-(the "next" pair after the given key).
-If there are no more elements in the table,
-then <a href="#lua_next"><code>lua_next</code></a> returns 0 (and pushes nothing).
-
-
-<p>
-A typical traversal looks like this:
-
-<pre>
-     /* table is in the stack at index 't' */
-     lua_pushnil(L);  /* first key */
-     while (lua_next(L, t) != 0) {
-       /* uses 'key' (at index -2) and 'value' (at index -1) */
-       printf("%s - %s\n",
-              lua_typename(L, lua_type(L, -2)),
-              lua_typename(L, lua_type(L, -1)));
-       /* removes 'value'; keeps 'key' for next iteration */
-       lua_pop(L, 1);
-     }
-</pre>
-
-<p>
-While traversing a table,
-do not call <a href="#lua_tolstring"><code>lua_tolstring</code></a> directly on a key,
-unless you know that the key is actually a string.
-Recall that <a href="#lua_tolstring"><code>lua_tolstring</code></a> <em>changes</em>
-the value at the given index;
-this confuses the next call to <a href="#lua_next"><code>lua_next</code></a>.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_Number"><code>lua_Number</code></a></h3>
-<pre>typedef double lua_Number;</pre>
-
-<p>
-The type of numbers in Lua.
-By default, it is double, but that can be changed in <code>luaconf.h</code>.
-
-
-<p>
-Through the configuration file you can change
-Lua to operate with another type for numbers (e.g., float or long).
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_objlen"><code>lua_objlen</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>size_t lua_objlen (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Returns the "length" of the value at the given acceptable index:
-for strings, this is the string length;
-for tables, this is the result of the length operator ('<code>#</code>');
-for userdata, this is the size of the block of memory allocated
-for the userdata;
-for other values, it is&nbsp;0.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_pcall"><code>lua_pcall</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-(nargs + 1), +(nresults|1), <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_pcall (lua_State *L, int nargs, int nresults, int errfunc);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Calls a function in protected mode.
-
-
-<p>
-Both <code>nargs</code> and <code>nresults</code> have the same meaning as
-in <a href="#lua_call"><code>lua_call</code></a>.
-If there are no errors during the call,
-<a href="#lua_pcall"><code>lua_pcall</code></a> behaves exactly like <a href="#lua_call"><code>lua_call</code></a>.
-However, if there is any error,
-<a href="#lua_pcall"><code>lua_pcall</code></a> catches it,
-pushes a single value on the stack (the error message),
-and returns an error code.
-Like <a href="#lua_call"><code>lua_call</code></a>,
-<a href="#lua_pcall"><code>lua_pcall</code></a> always removes the function
-and its arguments from the stack.
-
-
-<p>
-If <code>errfunc</code> is 0,
-then the error message returned on the stack
-is exactly the original error message.
-Otherwise, <code>errfunc</code> is the stack index of an
-<em>error handler function</em>.
-(In the current implementation, this index cannot be a pseudo-index.)
-In case of runtime errors,
-this function will be called with the error message
-and its return value will be the message returned on the stack by <a href="#lua_pcall"><code>lua_pcall</code></a>.
-
-
-<p>
-Typically, the error handler function is used to add more debug
-information to the error message, such as a stack traceback.
-Such information cannot be gathered after the return of <a href="#lua_pcall"><code>lua_pcall</code></a>,
-since by then the stack has unwound.
-
-
-<p>
-The <a href="#lua_pcall"><code>lua_pcall</code></a> function returns 0 in case of success
-or one of the following error codes
-(defined in <code>lua.h</code>):
-
-<ul>
-
-<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_ERRRUN"><code>LUA_ERRRUN</code></a>:</b>
-a runtime error.
-</li>
-
-<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_ERRMEM"><code>LUA_ERRMEM</code></a>:</b>
-memory allocation error.
-For such errors, Lua does not call the error handler function.
-</li>
-
-<li><b><a name="pdf-LUA_ERRERR"><code>LUA_ERRERR</code></a>:</b>
-error while running the error handler function.
-</li>
-
-</ul>
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_pop"><code>lua_pop</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-n, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_pop (lua_State *L, int n);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Pops <code>n</code> elements from the stack.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_pushboolean"><code>lua_pushboolean</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_pushboolean (lua_State *L, int b);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Pushes a boolean value with value <code>b</code> onto the stack.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_pushcclosure"><code>lua_pushcclosure</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-n, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_pushcclosure (lua_State *L, lua_CFunction fn, int n);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Pushes a new C&nbsp;closure onto the stack.
-
-
-<p>
-When a C&nbsp;function is created,
-it is possible to associate some values with it,
-thus creating a C&nbsp;closure (see <a href="#3.4">&sect;3.4</a>);
-these values are then accessible to the function whenever it is called.
-To associate values with a C&nbsp;function,
-first these values should be pushed onto the stack
-(when there are multiple values, the first value is pushed first).
-Then <a href="#lua_pushcclosure"><code>lua_pushcclosure</code></a>
-is called to create and push the C&nbsp;function onto the stack,
-with the argument <code>n</code> telling how many values should be
-associated with the function.
-<a href="#lua_pushcclosure"><code>lua_pushcclosure</code></a> also pops these values from the stack.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_pushcfunction"><code>lua_pushcfunction</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_pushcfunction (lua_State *L, lua_CFunction f);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Pushes a C&nbsp;function onto the stack.
-This function receives a pointer to a C function
-and pushes onto the stack a Lua value of type <code>function</code> that,
-when called, invokes the corresponding C&nbsp;function.
-
-
-<p>
-Any function to be registered in Lua must
-follow the correct protocol to receive its parameters
-and return its results (see <a href="#lua_CFunction"><code>lua_CFunction</code></a>).
-
-
-<p>
-<code>lua_pushcfunction</code> is defined as a macro:
-
-<pre>
-     #define lua_pushcfunction(L,f)  lua_pushcclosure(L,f,0)
-</pre>
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_pushfstring"><code>lua_pushfstring</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>const char *lua_pushfstring (lua_State *L, const char *fmt, ...);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Pushes onto the stack a formatted string
-and returns a pointer to this string.
-It is similar to the C&nbsp;function <code>sprintf</code>,
-but has some important differences:
-
-<ul>
-
-<li>
-You do not have to allocate space for the result:
-the result is a Lua string and Lua takes care of memory allocation
-(and deallocation, through garbage collection).
-</li>
-
-<li>
-The conversion specifiers are quite restricted.
-There are no flags, widths, or precisions.
-The conversion specifiers can only be
-'<code>%%</code>' (inserts a '<code>%</code>' in the string),
-'<code>%s</code>' (inserts a zero-terminated string, with no size restrictions),
-'<code>%f</code>' (inserts a <a href="#lua_Number"><code>lua_Number</code></a>),
-'<code>%p</code>' (inserts a pointer as a hexadecimal numeral),
-'<code>%d</code>' (inserts an <code>int</code>), and
-'<code>%c</code>' (inserts an <code>int</code> as a character).
-</li>
-
-</ul>
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_pushinteger"><code>lua_pushinteger</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_pushinteger (lua_State *L, lua_Integer n);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Pushes a number with value <code>n</code> onto the stack.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_pushlightuserdata"><code>lua_pushlightuserdata</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_pushlightuserdata (lua_State *L, void *p);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Pushes a light userdata onto the stack.
-
-
-<p>
-Userdata represent C&nbsp;values in Lua.
-A <em>light userdata</em> represents a pointer.
-It is a value (like a number):
-you do not create it, it has no individual metatable,
-and it is not collected (as it was never created).
-A light userdata is equal to "any"
-light userdata with the same C&nbsp;address.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_pushliteral"><code>lua_pushliteral</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_pushliteral (lua_State *L, const char *s);</pre>
-
-<p>
-This macro is equivalent to <a href="#lua_pushlstring"><code>lua_pushlstring</code></a>,
-but can be used only when <code>s</code> is a literal string.
-In these cases, it automatically provides the string length.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_pushlstring"><code>lua_pushlstring</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_pushlstring (lua_State *L, const char *s, size_t len);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Pushes the string pointed to by <code>s</code> with size <code>len</code>
-onto the stack.
-Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string,
-so the memory at <code>s</code> can be freed or reused immediately after
-the function returns.
-The string can contain embedded zeros.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_pushnil"><code>lua_pushnil</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_pushnil (lua_State *L);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Pushes a nil value onto the stack.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_pushnumber"><code>lua_pushnumber</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_pushnumber (lua_State *L, lua_Number n);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Pushes a number with value <code>n</code> onto the stack.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_pushstring"><code>lua_pushstring</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_pushstring (lua_State *L, const char *s);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Pushes the zero-terminated string pointed to by <code>s</code>
-onto the stack.
-Lua makes (or reuses) an internal copy of the given string,
-so the memory at <code>s</code> can be freed or reused immediately after
-the function returns.
-The string cannot contain embedded zeros;
-it is assumed to end at the first zero.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_pushthread"><code>lua_pushthread</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_pushthread (lua_State *L);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Pushes the thread represented by <code>L</code> onto the stack.
-Returns 1 if this thread is the main thread of its state.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_pushvalue"><code>lua_pushvalue</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_pushvalue (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Pushes a copy of the element at the given valid index
-onto the stack.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_pushvfstring"><code>lua_pushvfstring</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>const char *lua_pushvfstring (lua_State *L,
-                              const char *fmt,
-                              va_list argp);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Equivalent to <a href="#lua_pushfstring"><code>lua_pushfstring</code></a>, except that it receives a <code>va_list</code>
-instead of a variable number of arguments.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_rawequal"><code>lua_rawequal</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_rawequal (lua_State *L, int index1, int index2);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Returns 1 if the two values in acceptable indices <code>index1</code> and
-<code>index2</code> are primitively equal
-(that is, without calling metamethods).
-Otherwise returns&nbsp;0.
-Also returns&nbsp;0 if any of the indices are non valid.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_rawget"><code>lua_rawget</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-1, +1, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_rawget (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Similar to <a href="#lua_gettable"><code>lua_gettable</code></a>, but does a raw access
-(i.e., without metamethods).
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_rawgeti"><code>lua_rawgeti</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_rawgeti (lua_State *L, int index, int n);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Pushes onto the stack the value <code>t[n]</code>,
-where <code>t</code> is the value at the given valid index.
-The access is raw;
-that is, it does not invoke metamethods.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_rawset"><code>lua_rawset</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-2, +0, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_rawset (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Similar to <a href="#lua_settable"><code>lua_settable</code></a>, but does a raw assignment
-(i.e., without metamethods).
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_rawseti"><code>lua_rawseti</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-1, +0, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_rawseti (lua_State *L, int index, int n);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Does the equivalent of <code>t[n] = v</code>,
-where <code>t</code> is the value at the given valid index
-and <code>v</code> is the value at the top of the stack.
-
-
-<p>
-This function pops the value from the stack.
-The assignment is raw;
-that is, it does not invoke metamethods.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_Reader"><code>lua_Reader</code></a></h3>
-<pre>typedef const char * (*lua_Reader) (lua_State *L,
-                                    void *data,
-                                    size_t *size);</pre>
-
-<p>
-The reader function used by <a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a>.
-Every time it needs another piece of the chunk,
-<a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a> calls the reader,
-passing along its <code>data</code> parameter.
-The reader must return a pointer to a block of memory
-with a new piece of the chunk
-and set <code>size</code> to the block size.
-The block must exist until the reader function is called again.
-To signal the end of the chunk, the reader must return <code>NULL</code>.
-The reader function may return pieces of any size greater than zero.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_register"><code>lua_register</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>e</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_register (lua_State *L,
-                   const char *name,
-                   lua_CFunction f);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Sets the C function <code>f</code> as the new value of global <code>name</code>.
-It is defined as a macro:
-
-<pre>
-     #define lua_register(L,n,f) \
-            (lua_pushcfunction(L, f), lua_setglobal(L, n))
-</pre>
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_remove"><code>lua_remove</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-1, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_remove (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Removes the element at the given valid index,
-shifting down the elements above this index to fill the gap.
-Cannot be called with a pseudo-index,
-because a pseudo-index is not an actual stack position.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_replace"><code>lua_replace</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-1, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_replace (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Moves the top element into the given position (and pops it),
-without shifting any element
-(therefore replacing the value at the given position).
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_resume"><code>lua_resume</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-?, +?, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_resume (lua_State *L, int narg);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Starts and resumes a coroutine in a given thread.
-
-
-<p>
-To start a coroutine, you first create a new thread
-(see <a href="#lua_newthread"><code>lua_newthread</code></a>);
-then you push onto its stack the main function plus any arguments;
-then you call <a href="#lua_resume"><code>lua_resume</code></a>,
-with <code>narg</code> being the number of arguments.
-This call returns when the coroutine suspends or finishes its execution.
-When it returns, the stack contains all values passed to <a href="#lua_yield"><code>lua_yield</code></a>,
-or all values returned by the body function.
-<a href="#lua_resume"><code>lua_resume</code></a> returns
-<a href="#pdf-LUA_YIELD"><code>LUA_YIELD</code></a> if the coroutine yields,
-0 if the coroutine finishes its execution
-without errors,
-or an error code in case of errors (see <a href="#lua_pcall"><code>lua_pcall</code></a>).
-In case of errors,
-the stack is not unwound,
-so you can use the debug API over it.
-The error message is on the top of the stack.
-To restart a coroutine, you put on its stack only the values to
-be passed as results from <code>yield</code>,
-and then call <a href="#lua_resume"><code>lua_resume</code></a>.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_setallocf"><code>lua_setallocf</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_setallocf (lua_State *L, lua_Alloc f, void *ud);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Changes the allocator function of a given state to <code>f</code>
-with user data <code>ud</code>.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_setfenv"><code>lua_setfenv</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-1, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_setfenv (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Pops a table from the stack and sets it as
-the new environment for the value at the given index.
-If the value at the given index is
-neither a function nor a thread nor a userdata,
-<a href="#lua_setfenv"><code>lua_setfenv</code></a> returns 0.
-Otherwise it returns 1.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_setfield"><code>lua_setfield</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-1, +0, <em>e</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_setfield (lua_State *L, int index, const char *k);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Does the equivalent to <code>t[k] = v</code>,
-where <code>t</code> is the value at the given valid index
-and <code>v</code> is the value at the top of the stack.
-
-
-<p>
-This function pops the value from the stack.
-As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod
-for the "newindex" event (see <a href="#2.8">&sect;2.8</a>).
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_setglobal"><code>lua_setglobal</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-1, +0, <em>e</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_setglobal (lua_State *L, const char *name);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Pops a value from the stack and
-sets it as the new value of global <code>name</code>.
-It is defined as a macro:
-
-<pre>
-     #define lua_setglobal(L,s)   lua_setfield(L, LUA_GLOBALSINDEX, s)
-</pre>
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_setmetatable"><code>lua_setmetatable</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-1, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_setmetatable (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Pops a table from the stack and
-sets it as the new metatable for the value at the given
-acceptable index.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_settable"><code>lua_settable</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-2, +0, <em>e</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_settable (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Does the equivalent to <code>t[k] = v</code>,
-where <code>t</code> is the value at the given valid index,
-<code>v</code> is the value at the top of the stack,
-and <code>k</code> is the value just below the top.
-
-
-<p>
-This function pops both the key and the value from the stack.
-As in Lua, this function may trigger a metamethod
-for the "newindex" event (see <a href="#2.8">&sect;2.8</a>).
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_settop"><code>lua_settop</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-?, +?, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_settop (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Accepts any acceptable index, or&nbsp;0,
-and sets the stack top to this index.
-If the new top is larger than the old one,
-then the new elements are filled with <b>nil</b>.
-If <code>index</code> is&nbsp;0, then all stack elements are removed.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_State"><code>lua_State</code></a></h3>
-<pre>typedef struct lua_State lua_State;</pre>
-
-<p>
-Opaque structure that keeps the whole state of a Lua interpreter.
-The Lua library is fully reentrant:
-it has no global variables.
-All information about a state is kept in this structure.
-
-
-<p>
-A pointer to this state must be passed as the first argument to
-every function in the library, except to <a href="#lua_newstate"><code>lua_newstate</code></a>,
-which creates a Lua state from scratch.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_status"><code>lua_status</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_status (lua_State *L);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Returns the status of the thread <code>L</code>.
-
-
-<p>
-The status can be 0 for a normal thread,
-an error code if the thread finished its execution with an error,
-or <a name="pdf-LUA_YIELD"><code>LUA_YIELD</code></a> if the thread is suspended.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_toboolean"><code>lua_toboolean</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_toboolean (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C&nbsp;boolean
-value (0&nbsp;or&nbsp;1).
-Like all tests in Lua,
-<a href="#lua_toboolean"><code>lua_toboolean</code></a> returns 1 for any Lua value
-different from <b>false</b> and <b>nil</b>;
-otherwise it returns 0.
-It also returns 0 when called with a non-valid index.
-(If you want to accept only actual boolean values,
-use <a href="#lua_isboolean"><code>lua_isboolean</code></a> to test the value's type.)
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_tocfunction"><code>lua_tocfunction</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>lua_CFunction lua_tocfunction (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Converts a value at the given acceptable index to a C&nbsp;function.
-That value must be a C&nbsp;function;
-otherwise, returns <code>NULL</code>.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_tointeger"><code>lua_tointeger</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>lua_Integer lua_tointeger (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index
-to the signed integral type <a href="#lua_Integer"><code>lua_Integer</code></a>.
-The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number
-(see <a href="#2.2.1">&sect;2.2.1</a>);
-otherwise, <a href="#lua_tointeger"><code>lua_tointeger</code></a> returns&nbsp;0.
-
-
-<p>
-If the number is not an integer,
-it is truncated in some non-specified way.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_tolstring"><code>lua_tolstring</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>const char *lua_tolstring (lua_State *L, int index, size_t *len);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index to a C&nbsp;string.
-If <code>len</code> is not <code>NULL</code>,
-it also sets <code>*len</code> with the string length.
-The Lua value must be a string or a number;
-otherwise, the function returns <code>NULL</code>.
-If the value is a number,
-then <a href="#lua_tolstring"><code>lua_tolstring</code></a> also
-<em>changes the actual value in the stack to a string</em>.
-(This change confuses <a href="#lua_next"><code>lua_next</code></a>
-when <a href="#lua_tolstring"><code>lua_tolstring</code></a> is applied to keys during a table traversal.)
-
-
-<p>
-<a href="#lua_tolstring"><code>lua_tolstring</code></a> returns a fully aligned pointer
-to a string inside the Lua state.
-This string always has a zero ('<code>\0</code>')
-after its last character (as in&nbsp;C),
-but may contain other zeros in its body.
-Because Lua has garbage collection,
-there is no guarantee that the pointer returned by <a href="#lua_tolstring"><code>lua_tolstring</code></a>
-will be valid after the corresponding value is removed from the stack.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_tonumber"><code>lua_tonumber</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>lua_Number lua_tonumber (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Converts the Lua value at the given acceptable index
-to the C&nbsp;type <a href="#lua_Number"><code>lua_Number</code></a> (see <a href="#lua_Number"><code>lua_Number</code></a>).
-The Lua value must be a number or a string convertible to a number
-(see <a href="#2.2.1">&sect;2.2.1</a>);
-otherwise, <a href="#lua_tonumber"><code>lua_tonumber</code></a> returns&nbsp;0.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_topointer"><code>lua_topointer</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>const void *lua_topointer (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a generic
-C&nbsp;pointer (<code>void*</code>).
-The value may be a userdata, a table, a thread, or a function;
-otherwise, <a href="#lua_topointer"><code>lua_topointer</code></a> returns <code>NULL</code>.
-Different objects will give different pointers.
-There is no way to convert the pointer back to its original value.
-
-
-<p>
-Typically this function is used only for debug information.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_tostring"><code>lua_tostring</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>const char *lua_tostring (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Equivalent to <a href="#lua_tolstring"><code>lua_tolstring</code></a> with <code>len</code> equal to <code>NULL</code>.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_tothread"><code>lua_tothread</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>lua_State *lua_tothread (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Converts the value at the given acceptable index to a Lua thread
-(represented as <code>lua_State*</code>).
-This value must be a thread;
-otherwise, the function returns <code>NULL</code>.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_touserdata"><code>lua_touserdata</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>void *lua_touserdata (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-If the value at the given acceptable index is a full userdata,
-returns its block address.
-If the value is a light userdata,
-returns its pointer.
-Otherwise, returns <code>NULL</code>.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_type"><code>lua_type</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_type (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Returns the type of the value in the given acceptable index,
-or <code>LUA_TNONE</code> for a non-valid index
-(that is, an index to an "empty" stack position).
-The types returned by <a href="#lua_type"><code>lua_type</code></a> are coded by the following constants
-defined in <code>lua.h</code>:
-<code>LUA_TNIL</code>,
-<code>LUA_TNUMBER</code>,
-<code>LUA_TBOOLEAN</code>,
-<code>LUA_TSTRING</code>,
-<code>LUA_TTABLE</code>,
-<code>LUA_TFUNCTION</code>,
-<code>LUA_TUSERDATA</code>,
-<code>LUA_TTHREAD</code>,
-and
-<code>LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA</code>.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_typename"><code>lua_typename</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>const char *lua_typename  (lua_State *L, int tp);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Returns the name of the type encoded by the value <code>tp</code>,
-which must be one the values returned by <a href="#lua_type"><code>lua_type</code></a>.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_Writer"><code>lua_Writer</code></a></h3>
-<pre>typedef int (*lua_Writer) (lua_State *L,
-                           const void* p,
-                           size_t sz,
-                           void* ud);</pre>
-
-<p>
-The type of the writer function used by <a href="#lua_dump"><code>lua_dump</code></a>.
-Every time it produces another piece of chunk,
-<a href="#lua_dump"><code>lua_dump</code></a> calls the writer,
-passing along the buffer to be written (<code>p</code>),
-its size (<code>sz</code>),
-and the <code>data</code> parameter supplied to <a href="#lua_dump"><code>lua_dump</code></a>.
-
-
-<p>
-The writer returns an error code:
-0&nbsp;means no errors;
-any other value means an error and stops <a href="#lua_dump"><code>lua_dump</code></a> from
-calling the writer again.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_xmove"><code>lua_xmove</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-?, +?, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>void lua_xmove (lua_State *from, lua_State *to, int n);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Exchange values between different threads of the <em>same</em> global state.
-
-
-<p>
-This function pops <code>n</code> values from the stack <code>from</code>,
-and pushes them onto the stack <code>to</code>.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_yield"><code>lua_yield</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-?, +?, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_yield  (lua_State *L, int nresults);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Yields a coroutine.
-
-
-<p>
-This function should only be called as the
-return expression of a C&nbsp;function, as follows:
-
-<pre>
-     return lua_yield (L, nresults);
-</pre><p>
-When a C&nbsp;function calls <a href="#lua_yield"><code>lua_yield</code></a> in that way,
-the running coroutine suspends its execution,
-and the call to <a href="#lua_resume"><code>lua_resume</code></a> that started this coroutine returns.
-The parameter <code>nresults</code> is the number of values from the stack
-that are passed as results to <a href="#lua_resume"><code>lua_resume</code></a>.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<h2>3.8 - <a name="3.8">The Debug Interface</a></h2>
-
-<p>
-Lua has no built-in debugging facilities.
-Instead, it offers a special interface
-by means of functions and <em>hooks</em>.
-This interface allows the construction of different
-kinds of debuggers, profilers, and other tools
-that need "inside information" from the interpreter.
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_Debug"><code>lua_Debug</code></a></h3>
-<pre>typedef struct lua_Debug {
-  int event;
-  const char *name;           /* (n) */
-  const char *namewhat;       /* (n) */
-  const char *what;           /* (S) */
-  const char *source;         /* (S) */
-  int currentline;            /* (l) */
-  int nups;                   /* (u) number of upvalues */
-  int linedefined;            /* (S) */
-  int lastlinedefined;        /* (S) */
-  char short_src[LUA_IDSIZE]; /* (S) */
-  /* private part */
-  <em>other fields</em>
-} lua_Debug;</pre>
-
-<p>
-A structure used to carry different pieces of
-information about an active function.
-<a href="#lua_getstack"><code>lua_getstack</code></a> fills only the private part
-of this structure, for later use.
-To fill the other fields of <a href="#lua_Debug"><code>lua_Debug</code></a> with useful information,
-call <a href="#lua_getinfo"><code>lua_getinfo</code></a>.
-
-
-<p>
-The fields of <a href="#lua_Debug"><code>lua_Debug</code></a> have the following meaning:
-
-<ul>
-
-<li><b><code>source</code>:</b>
-If the function was defined in a string,
-then <code>source</code> is that string.
-If the function was defined in a file,
-then <code>source</code> starts with a '<code>@</code>' followed by the file name.
-</li>
-
-<li><b><code>short_src</code>:</b>
-a "printable" version of <code>source</code>, to be used in error messages.
-</li>
-
-<li><b><code>linedefined</code>:</b>
-the line number where the definition of the function starts.
-</li>
-
-<li><b><code>lastlinedefined</code>:</b>
-the line number where the definition of the function ends.
-</li>
-
-<li><b><code>what</code>:</b>
-the string <code>"Lua"</code> if the function is a Lua function,
-<code>"C"</code> if it is a C&nbsp;function,
-<code>"main"</code> if it is the main part of a chunk,
-and <code>"tail"</code> if it was a function that did a tail call.
-In the latter case,
-Lua has no other information about the function.
-</li>
-
-<li><b><code>currentline</code>:</b>
-the current line where the given function is executing.
-When no line information is available,
-<code>currentline</code> is set to -1.
-</li>
-
-<li><b><code>name</code>:</b>
-a reasonable name for the given function.
-Because functions in Lua are first-class values,
-they do not have a fixed name:
-some functions may be the value of multiple global variables,
-while others may be stored only in a table field.
-The <code>lua_getinfo</code> function checks how the function was
-called to find a suitable name.
-If it cannot find a name,
-then <code>name</code> is set to <code>NULL</code>.
-</li>
-
-<li><b><code>namewhat</code>:</b>
-explains the <code>name</code> field.
-The value of <code>namewhat</code> can be
-<code>"global"</code>, <code>"local"</code>, <code>"method"</code>,
-<code>"field"</code>, <code>"upvalue"</code>, or <code>""</code> (the empty string),
-according to how the function was called.
-(Lua uses the empty string when no other option seems to apply.)
-</li>
-
-<li><b><code>nups</code>:</b>
-the number of upvalues of the function.
-</li>
-
-</ul>
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_gethook"><code>lua_gethook</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>lua_Hook lua_gethook (lua_State *L);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Returns the current hook function.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_gethookcount"><code>lua_gethookcount</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_gethookcount (lua_State *L);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Returns the current hook count.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_gethookmask"><code>lua_gethookmask</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_gethookmask (lua_State *L);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Returns the current hook mask.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_getinfo"><code>lua_getinfo</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-(0|1), +(0|1|2), <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_getinfo (lua_State *L, const char *what, lua_Debug *ar);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Returns information about a specific function or function invocation.
-
-
-<p>
-To get information about a function invocation,
-the parameter <code>ar</code> must be a valid activation record that was
-filled by a previous call to <a href="#lua_getstack"><code>lua_getstack</code></a> or
-given as argument to a hook (see <a href="#lua_Hook"><code>lua_Hook</code></a>).
-
-
-<p>
-To get information about a function you push it onto the stack
-and start the <code>what</code> string with the character '<code>&gt;</code>'.
-(In that case,
-<code>lua_getinfo</code> pops the function in the top of the stack.)
-For instance, to know in which line a function <code>f</code> was defined,
-you can write the following code:
-
-<pre>
-     lua_Debug ar;
-     lua_getfield(L, LUA_GLOBALSINDEX, "f");  /* get global 'f' */
-     lua_getinfo(L, "&gt;S", &amp;ar);
-     printf("%d\n", ar.linedefined);
-</pre>
-
-<p>
-Each character in the string <code>what</code>
-selects some fields of the structure <code>ar</code> to be filled or
-a value to be pushed on the stack:
-
-<ul>
-
-<li><b>'<code>n</code>':</b> fills in the field <code>name</code> and <code>namewhat</code>;
-</li>
-
-<li><b>'<code>S</code>':</b>
-fills in the fields <code>source</code>, <code>short_src</code>,
-<code>linedefined</code>, <code>lastlinedefined</code>, and <code>what</code>;
-</li>
-
-<li><b>'<code>l</code>':</b> fills in the field <code>currentline</code>;
-</li>
-
-<li><b>'<code>u</code>':</b> fills in the field <code>nups</code>;
-</li>
-
-<li><b>'<code>f</code>':</b>
-pushes onto the stack the function that is
-running at the given level;
-</li>
-
-<li><b>'<code>L</code>':</b>
-pushes onto the stack a table whose indices are the
-numbers of the lines that are valid on the function.
-(A <em>valid line</em> is a line with some associated code,
-that is, a line where you can put a break point.
-Non-valid lines include empty lines and comments.)
-</li>
-
-</ul>
-
-<p>
-This function returns 0 on error
-(for instance, an invalid option in <code>what</code>).
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_getlocal"><code>lua_getlocal</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +(0|1), <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>const char *lua_getlocal (lua_State *L, lua_Debug *ar, int n);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Gets information about a local variable of a given activation record.
-The parameter <code>ar</code> must be a valid activation record that was
-filled by a previous call to <a href="#lua_getstack"><code>lua_getstack</code></a> or
-given as argument to a hook (see <a href="#lua_Hook"><code>lua_Hook</code></a>).
-The index <code>n</code> selects which local variable to inspect
-(1 is the first parameter or active local variable, and so on,
-until the last active local variable).
-<a href="#lua_getlocal"><code>lua_getlocal</code></a> pushes the variable's value onto the stack
-and returns its name.
-
-
-<p>
-Variable names starting with '<code>(</code>' (open parentheses)
-represent internal variables
-(loop control variables, temporaries, and C&nbsp;function locals).
-
-
-<p>
-Returns <code>NULL</code> (and pushes nothing)
-when the index is greater than
-the number of active local variables.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_getstack"><code>lua_getstack</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_getstack (lua_State *L, int level, lua_Debug *ar);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Get information about the interpreter runtime stack.
-
-
-<p>
-This function fills parts of a <a href="#lua_Debug"><code>lua_Debug</code></a> structure with
-an identification of the <em>activation record</em>
-of the function executing at a given level.
-Level&nbsp;0 is the current running function,
-whereas level <em>n+1</em> is the function that has called level <em>n</em>.
-When there are no errors, <a href="#lua_getstack"><code>lua_getstack</code></a> returns 1;
-when called with a level greater than the stack depth,
-it returns 0.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_getupvalue"><code>lua_getupvalue</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +(0|1), <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>const char *lua_getupvalue (lua_State *L, int funcindex, int n);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Gets information about a closure's upvalue.
-(For Lua functions,
-upvalues are the external local variables that the function uses,
-and that are consequently included in its closure.)
-<a href="#lua_getupvalue"><code>lua_getupvalue</code></a> gets the index <code>n</code> of an upvalue,
-pushes the upvalue's value onto the stack,
-and returns its name.
-<code>funcindex</code> points to the closure in the stack.
-(Upvalues have no particular order,
-as they are active through the whole function.
-So, they are numbered in an arbitrary order.)
-
-
-<p>
-Returns <code>NULL</code> (and pushes nothing)
-when the index is greater than the number of upvalues.
-For C&nbsp;functions, this function uses the empty string <code>""</code>
-as a name for all upvalues.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_Hook"><code>lua_Hook</code></a></h3>
-<pre>typedef void (*lua_Hook) (lua_State *L, lua_Debug *ar);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Type for debugging hook functions.
-
-
-<p>
-Whenever a hook is called, its <code>ar</code> argument has its field
-<code>event</code> set to the specific event that triggered the hook.
-Lua identifies these events with the following constants:
-<a name="pdf-LUA_HOOKCALL"><code>LUA_HOOKCALL</code></a>, <a name="pdf-LUA_HOOKRET"><code>LUA_HOOKRET</code></a>,
-<a name="pdf-LUA_HOOKTAILRET"><code>LUA_HOOKTAILRET</code></a>, <a name="pdf-LUA_HOOKLINE"><code>LUA_HOOKLINE</code></a>,
-and <a name="pdf-LUA_HOOKCOUNT"><code>LUA_HOOKCOUNT</code></a>.
-Moreover, for line events, the field <code>currentline</code> is also set.
-To get the value of any other field in <code>ar</code>,
-the hook must call <a href="#lua_getinfo"><code>lua_getinfo</code></a>.
-For return events, <code>event</code> may be <code>LUA_HOOKRET</code>,
-the normal value, or <code>LUA_HOOKTAILRET</code>.
-In the latter case, Lua is simulating a return from
-a function that did a tail call;
-in this case, it is useless to call <a href="#lua_getinfo"><code>lua_getinfo</code></a>.
-
-
-<p>
-While Lua is running a hook, it disables other calls to hooks.
-Therefore, if a hook calls back Lua to execute a function or a chunk,
-this execution occurs without any calls to hooks.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_sethook"><code>lua_sethook</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>int lua_sethook (lua_State *L, lua_Hook f, int mask, int count);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Sets the debugging hook function.
-
-
-<p>
-Argument <code>f</code> is the hook function.
-<code>mask</code> specifies on which events the hook will be called:
-it is formed by a bitwise or of the constants
-<a name="pdf-LUA_MASKCALL"><code>LUA_MASKCALL</code></a>,
-<a name="pdf-LUA_MASKRET"><code>LUA_MASKRET</code></a>,
-<a name="pdf-LUA_MASKLINE"><code>LUA_MASKLINE</code></a>,
-and <a name="pdf-LUA_MASKCOUNT"><code>LUA_MASKCOUNT</code></a>.
-The <code>count</code> argument is only meaningful when the mask
-includes <code>LUA_MASKCOUNT</code>.
-For each event, the hook is called as explained below:
-
-<ul>
-
-<li><b>The call hook:</b> is called when the interpreter calls a function.
-The hook is called just after Lua enters the new function,
-before the function gets its arguments.
-</li>
-
-<li><b>The return hook:</b> is called when the interpreter returns from a function.
-The hook is called just before Lua leaves the function.
-You have no access to the values to be returned by the function.
-</li>
-
-<li><b>The line hook:</b> is called when the interpreter is about to
-start the execution of a new line of code,
-or when it jumps back in the code (even to the same line).
-(This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.)
-</li>
-
-<li><b>The count hook:</b> is called after the interpreter executes every
-<code>count</code> instructions.
-(This event only happens while Lua is executing a Lua function.)
-</li>
-
-</ul>
-
-<p>
-A hook is disabled by setting <code>mask</code> to zero.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_setlocal"><code>lua_setlocal</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-(0|1), +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>const char *lua_setlocal (lua_State *L, lua_Debug *ar, int n);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Sets the value of a local variable of a given activation record.
-Parameters <code>ar</code> and <code>n</code> are as in <a href="#lua_getlocal"><code>lua_getlocal</code></a>
-(see <a href="#lua_getlocal"><code>lua_getlocal</code></a>).
-<a href="#lua_setlocal"><code>lua_setlocal</code></a> assigns the value at the top of the stack
-to the variable and returns its name.
-It also pops the value from the stack.
-
-
-<p>
-Returns <code>NULL</code> (and pops nothing)
-when the index is greater than
-the number of active local variables.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="lua_setupvalue"><code>lua_setupvalue</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-(0|1), +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>const char *lua_setupvalue (lua_State *L, int funcindex, int n);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Sets the value of a closure's upvalue.
-It assigns the value at the top of the stack
-to the upvalue and returns its name.
-It also pops the value from the stack.
-Parameters <code>funcindex</code> and <code>n</code> are as in the <a href="#lua_getupvalue"><code>lua_getupvalue</code></a>
-(see <a href="#lua_getupvalue"><code>lua_getupvalue</code></a>).
-
-
-<p>
-Returns <code>NULL</code> (and pops nothing)
-when the index is greater than the number of upvalues.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<h1>4 - <a name="4">The Auxiliary Library</a></h1>
-
-<p>
-
-The <em>auxiliary library</em> provides several convenient functions
-to interface C with Lua.
-While the basic API provides the primitive functions for all 
-interactions between C and Lua,
-the auxiliary library provides higher-level functions for some
-common tasks.
-
-
-<p>
-All functions from the auxiliary library
-are defined in header file <code>lauxlib.h</code> and
-have a prefix <code>luaL_</code>.
-
-
-<p>
-All functions in the auxiliary library are built on
-top of the basic API,
-and so they provide nothing that cannot be done with this API.
-
-
-<p>
-Several functions in the auxiliary library are used to
-check C&nbsp;function arguments.
-Their names are always <code>luaL_check*</code> or <code>luaL_opt*</code>.
-All of these functions throw an error if the check is not satisfied.
-Because the error message is formatted for arguments
-(e.g., "<code>bad argument #1</code>"),
-you should not use these functions for other stack values.
-
-
-
-<h2>4.1 - <a name="4.1">Functions and Types</a></h2>
-
-<p>
-Here we list all functions and types from the auxiliary library
-in alphabetical order.
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_addchar"><code>luaL_addchar</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>void luaL_addchar (luaL_Buffer *B, char c);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Adds the character <code>c</code> to the buffer <code>B</code>
-(see <a href="#luaL_Buffer"><code>luaL_Buffer</code></a>).
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_addlstring"><code>luaL_addlstring</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>void luaL_addlstring (luaL_Buffer *B, const char *s, size_t l);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Adds the string pointed to by <code>s</code> with length <code>l</code> to
-the buffer <code>B</code>
-(see <a href="#luaL_Buffer"><code>luaL_Buffer</code></a>).
-The string may contain embedded zeros.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_addsize"><code>luaL_addsize</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>void luaL_addsize (luaL_Buffer *B, size_t n);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Adds to the buffer <code>B</code> (see <a href="#luaL_Buffer"><code>luaL_Buffer</code></a>)
-a string of length <code>n</code> previously copied to the
-buffer area (see <a href="#luaL_prepbuffer"><code>luaL_prepbuffer</code></a>).
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_addstring"><code>luaL_addstring</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>void luaL_addstring (luaL_Buffer *B, const char *s);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Adds the zero-terminated string pointed to by <code>s</code>
-to the buffer <code>B</code>
-(see <a href="#luaL_Buffer"><code>luaL_Buffer</code></a>).
-The string may not contain embedded zeros.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_addvalue"><code>luaL_addvalue</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-1, +0, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>void luaL_addvalue (luaL_Buffer *B);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Adds the value at the top of the stack
-to the buffer <code>B</code>
-(see <a href="#luaL_Buffer"><code>luaL_Buffer</code></a>).
-Pops the value.
-
-
-<p>
-This is the only function on string buffers that can (and must)
-be called with an extra element on the stack,
-which is the value to be added to the buffer.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_argcheck"><code>luaL_argcheck</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>void luaL_argcheck (lua_State *L,
-                    int cond,
-                    int narg,
-                    const char *extramsg);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Checks whether <code>cond</code> is true.
-If not, raises an error with the following message,
-where <code>func</code> is retrieved from the call stack:
-
-<pre>
-     bad argument #&lt;narg&gt; to &lt;func&gt; (&lt;extramsg&gt;)
-</pre>
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_argerror"><code>luaL_argerror</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>int luaL_argerror (lua_State *L, int narg, const char *extramsg);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Raises an error with the following message,
-where <code>func</code> is retrieved from the call stack:
-
-<pre>
-     bad argument #&lt;narg&gt; to &lt;func&gt; (&lt;extramsg&gt;)
-</pre>
-
-<p>
-This function never returns,
-but it is an idiom to use it in C&nbsp;functions
-as <code>return luaL_argerror(<em>args</em>)</code>.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_Buffer"><code>luaL_Buffer</code></a></h3>
-<pre>typedef struct luaL_Buffer luaL_Buffer;</pre>
-
-<p>
-Type for a <em>string buffer</em>.
-
-
-<p>
-A string buffer allows C&nbsp;code to build Lua strings piecemeal.
-Its pattern of use is as follows:
-
-<ul>
-
-<li>First you declare a variable <code>b</code> of type <a href="#luaL_Buffer"><code>luaL_Buffer</code></a>.</li>
-
-<li>Then you initialize it with a call <code>luaL_buffinit(L, &amp;b)</code>.</li>
-
-<li>
-Then you add string pieces to the buffer calling any of
-the <code>luaL_add*</code> functions.
-</li>
-
-<li>
-You finish by calling <code>luaL_pushresult(&amp;b)</code>.
-This call leaves the final string on the top of the stack.
-</li>
-
-</ul>
-
-<p>
-During its normal operation,
-a string buffer uses a variable number of stack slots.
-So, while using a buffer, you cannot assume that you know where
-the top of the stack is.
-You can use the stack between successive calls to buffer operations
-as long as that use is balanced;
-that is,
-when you call a buffer operation,
-the stack is at the same level
-it was immediately after the previous buffer operation.
-(The only exception to this rule is <a href="#luaL_addvalue"><code>luaL_addvalue</code></a>.)
-After calling <a href="#luaL_pushresult"><code>luaL_pushresult</code></a> the stack is back to its
-level when the buffer was initialized,
-plus the final string on its top.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_buffinit"><code>luaL_buffinit</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>void luaL_buffinit (lua_State *L, luaL_Buffer *B);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Initializes a buffer <code>B</code>.
-This function does not allocate any space;
-the buffer must be declared as a variable
-(see <a href="#luaL_Buffer"><code>luaL_Buffer</code></a>).
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_callmeta"><code>luaL_callmeta</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +(0|1), <em>e</em>]</span>
-<pre>int luaL_callmeta (lua_State *L, int obj, const char *e);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Calls a metamethod.
-
-
-<p>
-If the object at index <code>obj</code> has a metatable and this
-metatable has a field <code>e</code>,
-this function calls this field and passes the object as its only argument.
-In this case this function returns 1 and pushes onto the
-stack the value returned by the call.
-If there is no metatable or no metamethod,
-this function returns 0 (without pushing any value on the stack).
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_checkany"><code>luaL_checkany</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>void luaL_checkany (lua_State *L, int narg);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Checks whether the function has an argument
-of any type (including <b>nil</b>) at position <code>narg</code>.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_checkint"><code>luaL_checkint</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>int luaL_checkint (lua_State *L, int narg);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Checks whether the function argument <code>narg</code> is a number
-and returns this number cast to an <code>int</code>.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_checkinteger"><code>luaL_checkinteger</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>lua_Integer luaL_checkinteger (lua_State *L, int narg);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Checks whether the function argument <code>narg</code> is a number
-and returns this number cast to a <a href="#lua_Integer"><code>lua_Integer</code></a>.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_checklong"><code>luaL_checklong</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>long luaL_checklong (lua_State *L, int narg);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Checks whether the function argument <code>narg</code> is a number
-and returns this number cast to a <code>long</code>.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_checklstring"><code>luaL_checklstring</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>const char *luaL_checklstring (lua_State *L, int narg, size_t *l);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Checks whether the function argument <code>narg</code> is a string
-and returns this string;
-if <code>l</code> is not <code>NULL</code> fills <code>*l</code>
-with the string's length.
-
-
-<p>
-This function uses <a href="#lua_tolstring"><code>lua_tolstring</code></a> to get its result,
-so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_checknumber"><code>luaL_checknumber</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>lua_Number luaL_checknumber (lua_State *L, int narg);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Checks whether the function argument <code>narg</code> is a number
-and returns this number.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_checkoption"><code>luaL_checkoption</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>int luaL_checkoption (lua_State *L,
-                      int narg,
-                      const char *def,
-                      const char *const lst[]);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Checks whether the function argument <code>narg</code> is a string and
-searches for this string in the array <code>lst</code>
-(which must be NULL-terminated).
-Returns the index in the array where the string was found.
-Raises an error if the argument is not a string or
-if the string cannot be found.
-
-
-<p>
-If <code>def</code> is not <code>NULL</code>,
-the function uses <code>def</code> as a default value when
-there is no argument <code>narg</code> or if this argument is <b>nil</b>.
-
-
-<p>
-This is a useful function for mapping strings to C&nbsp;enums.
-(The usual convention in Lua libraries is
-to use strings instead of numbers to select options.)
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_checkstack"><code>luaL_checkstack</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>void luaL_checkstack (lua_State *L, int sz, const char *msg);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Grows the stack size to <code>top + sz</code> elements,
-raising an error if the stack cannot grow to that size.
-<code>msg</code> is an additional text to go into the error message.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_checkstring"><code>luaL_checkstring</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>const char *luaL_checkstring (lua_State *L, int narg);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Checks whether the function argument <code>narg</code> is a string
-and returns this string.
-
-
-<p>
-This function uses <a href="#lua_tolstring"><code>lua_tolstring</code></a> to get its result,
-so all conversions and caveats of that function apply here.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_checktype"><code>luaL_checktype</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>void luaL_checktype (lua_State *L, int narg, int t);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Checks whether the function argument <code>narg</code> has type <code>t</code>.
-See <a href="#lua_type"><code>lua_type</code></a> for the encoding of types for <code>t</code>.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_checkudata"><code>luaL_checkudata</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>void *luaL_checkudata (lua_State *L, int narg, const char *tname);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Checks whether the function argument <code>narg</code> is a userdata
-of the type <code>tname</code> (see <a href="#luaL_newmetatable"><code>luaL_newmetatable</code></a>).
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_dofile"><code>luaL_dofile</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +?, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>int luaL_dofile (lua_State *L, const char *filename);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Loads and runs the given file.
-It is defined as the following macro:
-
-<pre>
-     (luaL_loadfile(L, filename) || lua_pcall(L, 0, LUA_MULTRET, 0))
-</pre><p>
-It returns 0 if there are no errors
-or 1 in case of errors.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_dostring"><code>luaL_dostring</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +?, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>int luaL_dostring (lua_State *L, const char *str);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Loads and runs the given string.
-It is defined as the following macro:
-
-<pre>
-     (luaL_loadstring(L, str) || lua_pcall(L, 0, LUA_MULTRET, 0))
-</pre><p>
-It returns 0 if there are no errors
-or 1 in case of errors.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_error"><code>luaL_error</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>int luaL_error (lua_State *L, const char *fmt, ...);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Raises an error.
-The error message format is given by <code>fmt</code>
-plus any extra arguments,
-following the same rules of <a href="#lua_pushfstring"><code>lua_pushfstring</code></a>.
-It also adds at the beginning of the message the file name and
-the line number where the error occurred,
-if this information is available.
-
-
-<p>
-This function never returns,
-but it is an idiom to use it in C&nbsp;functions
-as <code>return luaL_error(<em>args</em>)</code>.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_getmetafield"><code>luaL_getmetafield</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +(0|1), <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>int luaL_getmetafield (lua_State *L, int obj, const char *e);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Pushes onto the stack the field <code>e</code> from the metatable
-of the object at index <code>obj</code>.
-If the object does not have a metatable,
-or if the metatable does not have this field,
-returns 0 and pushes nothing.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_getmetatable"><code>luaL_getmetatable</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>void luaL_getmetatable (lua_State *L, const char *tname);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Pushes onto the stack the metatable associated with name <code>tname</code>
-in the registry (see <a href="#luaL_newmetatable"><code>luaL_newmetatable</code></a>).
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_gsub"><code>luaL_gsub</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>const char *luaL_gsub (lua_State *L,
-                       const char *s,
-                       const char *p,
-                       const char *r);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Creates a copy of string <code>s</code> by replacing
-any occurrence of the string <code>p</code>
-with the string <code>r</code>.
-Pushes the resulting string on the stack and returns it.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_loadbuffer"><code>luaL_loadbuffer</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>int luaL_loadbuffer (lua_State *L,
-                     const char *buff,
-                     size_t sz,
-                     const char *name);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Loads a buffer as a Lua chunk.
-This function uses <a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a> to load the chunk in the
-buffer pointed to by <code>buff</code> with size <code>sz</code>.
-
-
-<p>
-This function returns the same results as <a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a>.
-<code>name</code> is the chunk name,
-used for debug information and error messages.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_loadfile"><code>luaL_loadfile</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>int luaL_loadfile (lua_State *L, const char *filename);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Loads a file as a Lua chunk.
-This function uses <a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a> to load the chunk in the file
-named <code>filename</code>.
-If <code>filename</code> is <code>NULL</code>,
-then it loads from the standard input.
-The first line in the file is ignored if it starts with a <code>#</code>.
-
-
-<p>
-This function returns the same results as <a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a>,
-but it has an extra error code <a name="pdf-LUA_ERRFILE"><code>LUA_ERRFILE</code></a>
-if it cannot open/read the file.
-
-
-<p>
-As <a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a>, this function only loads the chunk;
-it does not run it.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_loadstring"><code>luaL_loadstring</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>int luaL_loadstring (lua_State *L, const char *s);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Loads a string as a Lua chunk.
-This function uses <a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a> to load the chunk in
-the zero-terminated string <code>s</code>.
-
-
-<p>
-This function returns the same results as <a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a>.
-
-
-<p>
-Also as <a href="#lua_load"><code>lua_load</code></a>, this function only loads the chunk;
-it does not run it.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_newmetatable"><code>luaL_newmetatable</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>int luaL_newmetatable (lua_State *L, const char *tname);</pre>
-
-<p>
-If the registry already has the key <code>tname</code>,
-returns 0.
-Otherwise,
-creates a new table to be used as a metatable for userdata,
-adds it to the registry with key <code>tname</code>,
-and returns 1.
-
-
-<p>
-In both cases pushes onto the stack the final value associated
-with <code>tname</code> in the registry.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_newstate"><code>luaL_newstate</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>lua_State *luaL_newstate (void);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Creates a new Lua state.
-It calls <a href="#lua_newstate"><code>lua_newstate</code></a> with an
-allocator based on the standard&nbsp;C <code>realloc</code> function
-and then sets a panic function (see <a href="#lua_atpanic"><code>lua_atpanic</code></a>) that prints
-an error message to the standard error output in case of fatal
-errors.
-
-
-<p>
-Returns the new state,
-or <code>NULL</code> if there is a memory allocation error.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_openlibs"><code>luaL_openlibs</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>void luaL_openlibs (lua_State *L);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Opens all standard Lua libraries into the given state.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_optint"><code>luaL_optint</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>int luaL_optint (lua_State *L, int narg, int d);</pre>
-
-<p>
-If the function argument <code>narg</code> is a number,
-returns this number cast to an <code>int</code>.
-If this argument is absent or is <b>nil</b>,
-returns <code>d</code>.
-Otherwise, raises an error.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_optinteger"><code>luaL_optinteger</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>lua_Integer luaL_optinteger (lua_State *L,
-                             int narg,
-                             lua_Integer d);</pre>
-
-<p>
-If the function argument <code>narg</code> is a number,
-returns this number cast to a <a href="#lua_Integer"><code>lua_Integer</code></a>.
-If this argument is absent or is <b>nil</b>,
-returns <code>d</code>.
-Otherwise, raises an error.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_optlong"><code>luaL_optlong</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>long luaL_optlong (lua_State *L, int narg, long d);</pre>
-
-<p>
-If the function argument <code>narg</code> is a number,
-returns this number cast to a <code>long</code>.
-If this argument is absent or is <b>nil</b>,
-returns <code>d</code>.
-Otherwise, raises an error.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_optlstring"><code>luaL_optlstring</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>const char *luaL_optlstring (lua_State *L,
-                             int narg,
-                             const char *d,
-                             size_t *l);</pre>
-
-<p>
-If the function argument <code>narg</code> is a string,
-returns this string.
-If this argument is absent or is <b>nil</b>,
-returns <code>d</code>.
-Otherwise, raises an error.
-
-
-<p>
-If <code>l</code> is not <code>NULL</code>,
-fills the position <code>*l</code> with the results's length.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_optnumber"><code>luaL_optnumber</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>lua_Number luaL_optnumber (lua_State *L, int narg, lua_Number d);</pre>
-
-<p>
-If the function argument <code>narg</code> is a number,
-returns this number.
-If this argument is absent or is <b>nil</b>,
-returns <code>d</code>.
-Otherwise, raises an error.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_optstring"><code>luaL_optstring</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>const char *luaL_optstring (lua_State *L,
-                            int narg,
-                            const char *d);</pre>
-
-<p>
-If the function argument <code>narg</code> is a string,
-returns this string.
-If this argument is absent or is <b>nil</b>,
-returns <code>d</code>.
-Otherwise, raises an error.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_prepbuffer"><code>luaL_prepbuffer</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>char *luaL_prepbuffer (luaL_Buffer *B);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Returns an address to a space of size <a name="pdf-LUAL_BUFFERSIZE"><code>LUAL_BUFFERSIZE</code></a>
-where you can copy a string to be added to buffer <code>B</code>
-(see <a href="#luaL_Buffer"><code>luaL_Buffer</code></a>).
-After copying the string into this space you must call
-<a href="#luaL_addsize"><code>luaL_addsize</code></a> with the size of the string to actually add 
-it to the buffer.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_pushresult"><code>luaL_pushresult</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-?, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>void luaL_pushresult (luaL_Buffer *B);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Finishes the use of buffer <code>B</code> leaving the final string on
-the top of the stack.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_ref"><code>luaL_ref</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-1, +0, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>int luaL_ref (lua_State *L, int t);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Creates and returns a <em>reference</em>,
-in the table at index <code>t</code>,
-for the object at the top of the stack (and pops the object).
-
-
-<p>
-A reference is a unique integer key.
-As long as you do not manually add integer keys into table <code>t</code>,
-<a href="#luaL_ref"><code>luaL_ref</code></a> ensures the uniqueness of the key it returns.
-You can retrieve an object referred by reference <code>r</code>
-by calling <code>lua_rawgeti(L, t, r)</code>.
-Function <a href="#luaL_unref"><code>luaL_unref</code></a> frees a reference and its associated object.
-
-
-<p>
-If the object at the top of the stack is <b>nil</b>,
-<a href="#luaL_ref"><code>luaL_ref</code></a> returns the constant <a name="pdf-LUA_REFNIL"><code>LUA_REFNIL</code></a>.
-The constant <a name="pdf-LUA_NOREF"><code>LUA_NOREF</code></a> is guaranteed to be different
-from any reference returned by <a href="#luaL_ref"><code>luaL_ref</code></a>.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_Reg"><code>luaL_Reg</code></a></h3>
-<pre>typedef struct luaL_Reg {
-  const char *name;
-  lua_CFunction func;
-} luaL_Reg;</pre>
-
-<p>
-Type for arrays of functions to be registered by
-<a href="#luaL_register"><code>luaL_register</code></a>.
-<code>name</code> is the function name and <code>func</code> is a pointer to
-the function.
-Any array of <a href="#luaL_Reg"><code>luaL_Reg</code></a> must end with an sentinel entry
-in which both <code>name</code> and <code>func</code> are <code>NULL</code>.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_register"><code>luaL_register</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-(0|1), +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>void luaL_register (lua_State *L,
-                    const char *libname,
-                    const luaL_Reg *l);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Opens a library.
-
-
-<p>
-When called with <code>libname</code> equal to <code>NULL</code>,
-it simply registers all functions in the list <code>l</code>
-(see <a href="#luaL_Reg"><code>luaL_Reg</code></a>) into the table on the top of the stack.
-
-
-<p>
-When called with a non-null <code>libname</code>,
-<code>luaL_register</code> creates a new table <code>t</code>,
-sets it as the value of the global variable <code>libname</code>,
-sets it as the value of <code>package.loaded[libname]</code>,
-and registers on it all functions in the list <code>l</code>.
-If there is a table in <code>package.loaded[libname]</code> or in
-variable <code>libname</code>,
-reuses this table instead of creating a new one.
-
-
-<p>
-In any case the function leaves the table
-on the top of the stack.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_typename"><code>luaL_typename</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>const char *luaL_typename (lua_State *L, int index);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Returns the name of the type of the value at the given index.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_typerror"><code>luaL_typerror</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>v</em>]</span>
-<pre>int luaL_typerror (lua_State *L, int narg, const char *tname);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Generates an error with a message like the following:
-
-<pre>
-     <em>location</em>: bad argument <em>narg</em> to '<em>func</em>' (<em>tname</em> expected, got <em>rt</em>)
-</pre><p>
-where <code><em>location</em></code> is produced by <a href="#luaL_where"><code>luaL_where</code></a>,
-<code><em>func</em></code> is the name of the current function,
-and <code><em>rt</em></code> is the type name of the actual argument.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_unref"><code>luaL_unref</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +0, <em>-</em>]</span>
-<pre>void luaL_unref (lua_State *L, int t, int ref);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Releases reference <code>ref</code> from the table at index <code>t</code>
-(see <a href="#luaL_ref"><code>luaL_ref</code></a>).
-The entry is removed from the table,
-so that the referred object can be collected.
-The reference <code>ref</code> is also freed to be used again.
-
-
-<p>
-If <code>ref</code> is <a href="#pdf-LUA_NOREF"><code>LUA_NOREF</code></a> or <a href="#pdf-LUA_REFNIL"><code>LUA_REFNIL</code></a>,
-<a href="#luaL_unref"><code>luaL_unref</code></a> does nothing.
-
-
-
-
-
-<hr><h3><a name="luaL_where"><code>luaL_where</code></a></h3><p>
-<span class="apii">[-0, +1, <em>m</em>]</span>
-<pre>void luaL_where (lua_State *L, int lvl);</pre>
-
-<p>
-Pushes onto the stack a string identifying the current position
-of the control at level <code>lvl</code> in the call stack.
-Typically this string has the following format:
-
-<pre>
-     <em>chunkname</em>:<em>currentline</em>:
-</pre><p>
-Level&nbsp;0 is the running function,
-level&nbsp;1 is the function that called the running function,
-etc.
-
-
-<p>
-This function is used to build a prefix for error messages.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<h1>5 - <a name="5">Standard Libraries</a></h1>
-
-<p>
-The standard Lua libraries provide useful functions
-that are implemented directly through the C&nbsp;API.
-Some of these functions provide essential services to the language
-(e.g., <a href="#pdf-type"><code>type</code></a> and <a href="#pdf-getmetatable"><code>getmetatable</code></a>);
-others provide access to "outside" services (e.g., I/O);
-and others could be implemented in Lua itself,
-but are quite useful or have critical performance requirements that
-deserve an implementation in C (e.g., <a href="#pdf-table.sort"><code>table.sort</code></a>).
-
-
-<p>
-All libraries are implemented through the official C&nbsp;API
-and are provided as separate C&nbsp;modules.
-Currently, Lua has the following standard libraries:
-
-<ul>
-
-<li>basic library;</li>
-
-<li>package library;</li>
-
-<li>string manipulation;</li>
-
-<li>table manipulation;</li>
-
-<li>mathematical functions (sin, log, etc.);</li>
-
-<li>input and output;</li>
-
-<li>operating system facilities;</li>
-
-<li>debug facilities.</li>
-
-</ul><p>
-Except for the basic and package libraries,
-each library provides all its functions as fields of a global table
-or as methods of its objects.
-
-
-<p>
-To have access to these libraries,
-the C&nbsp;host program should call the <a href="#luaL_openlibs"><code>luaL_openlibs</code></a> function,
-which opens all standard libraries.
-Alternatively,
-it can open them individually by calling
-<a name="pdf-luaopen_base"><code>luaopen_base</code></a> (for the basic library),
-<a name="pdf-luaopen_package"><code>luaopen_package</code></a> (for the package library),
-<a name="pdf-luaopen_string"><code>luaopen_string</code></a> (for the string library),
-<a name="pdf-luaopen_table"><code>luaopen_table</code></a> (for the table library),
-<a name="pdf-luaopen_math"><code>luaopen_math</code></a> (for the mathematical library),
-<a name="pdf-luaopen_io"><code>luaopen_io</code></a> (for the I/O library),
-<a name="pdf-luaopen_os"><code>luaopen_os</code></a> (for the Operating System library),
-and <a name="pdf-luaopen_debug"><code>luaopen_debug</code></a> (for the debug library).
-These functions are declared in <a name="pdf-lualib.h"><code>lualib.h</code></a>
-and should not be called directly:
-you must call them like any other Lua C&nbsp;function,
-e.g., by using <a href="#lua_call"><code>lua_call</code></a>.
-
-
-
-<h2>5.1 - <a name="5.1">Basic Functions</a></h2>
-
-<p>
-The basic library provides some core functions to Lua.
-If you do not include this library in your application,
-you should check carefully whether you need to provide 
-implementations for some of its facilities.
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-assert"><code>assert (v [, message])</code></a></h3>
-Issues an  error when
-the value of its argument <code>v</code> is false (i.e., <b>nil</b> or <b>false</b>);
-otherwise, returns all its arguments.
-<code>message</code> is an error message;
-when absent, it defaults to "assertion failed!"
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-collectgarbage"><code>collectgarbage (opt [, arg])</code></a></h3>
-
-
-<p>
-This function is a generic interface to the garbage collector.
-It performs different functions according to its first argument, <code>opt</code>:
-
-<ul>
-
-<li><b>"stop":</b>
-stops the garbage collector.
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"restart":</b>
-restarts the garbage collector.
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"collect":</b>
-performs a full garbage-collection cycle.
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"count":</b>
-returns the total memory in use by Lua (in Kbytes).
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"step":</b>
-performs a garbage-collection step.
-The step "size" is controlled by <code>arg</code>
-(larger values mean more steps) in a non-specified way.
-If you want to control the step size
-you must experimentally tune the value of <code>arg</code>.
-Returns <b>true</b> if the step finished a collection cycle.
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"setpause":</b>
-sets <code>arg</code>/100 as the new value for the <em>pause</em> of
-the collector (see <a href="#2.10">&sect;2.10</a>).
-</li>
-
-<li><b>"setstepmul":</b>
-sets <code>arg</code>/100 as the new value for the <em>step multiplier</em> of
-the collector (see <a href="#2.10">&sect;2.10</a>).
-</li>
-
-</ul>
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-dofile"><code>dofile (filename)</code></a></h3>
-Opens the named file and executes its contents as a Lua chunk.
-When called without arguments,
-<code>dofile</code> executes the contents of the standard input (<code>stdin</code>).
-Returns all values returned by the chunk.
-In case of errors, <code>dofile</code> propagates the error
-to its caller (that is, <code>dofile</code> does not run in protected mode).
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-error"><code>error (message [, level])</code></a></h3>
-Terminates the last protected function called
-and returns <code>message</code> as the error message.
-Function <code>error</code> never returns.
-
-
-<p>
-Usually, <code>error</code> adds some information about the error position
-at the beginning of the message.
-The <code>level</code> argument specifies how to get the error position.
-With level&nbsp;1 (the default), the error position is where the
-<code>error</code> function was called.
-Level&nbsp;2 points the error to where the function
-that called <code>error</code> was called; and so on.
-Passing a level&nbsp;0 avoids the addition of error position information
-to the message.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-_G"><code>_G</code></a></h3>
-A global variable (not a function) that
-holds the global environment (that is, <code>_G._G = _G</code>).
-Lua itself does not use this variable;
-changing its value does not affect any environment,
-nor vice-versa.
-(Use <a href="#pdf-setfenv"><code>setfenv</code></a> to change environments.)
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-getfenv"><code>getfenv ([f])</code></a></h3>
-Returns the current environment in use by the function.
-<code>f</code> can be a Lua function or a number
-that specifies the function at that stack level:
-Level&nbsp;1 is the function calling <code>getfenv</code>.
-If the given function is not a Lua function,
-or if <code>f</code> is 0,
-<code>getfenv</code> returns the global environment.
-The default for <code>f</code> is 1.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-getmetatable"><code>getmetatable (object)</code></a></h3>
-
-
-<p>
-If <code>object</code> does not have a metatable, returns <b>nil</b>.
-Otherwise,
-if the object's metatable has a <code>"__metatable"</code> field,
-returns the associated value.
-Otherwise, returns the metatable of the given object.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-ipairs"><code>ipairs (t)</code></a></h3>
-
-
-<p>
-Returns three values: an iterator function, the table <code>t</code>, and 0,
-so that the construction
-
-<pre>
-     for i,v in ipairs(t) do <em>body</em> end
-</pre><p>
-will iterate over the pairs (<code>1,t[1]</code>), (<code>2,t[2]</code>), &middot;&middot;&middot;,
-up to the first integer key absent from the table.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-load"><code>load (func [, chunkname])</code></a></h3>
-
-
-<p>
-Loads a chunk using function <code>func</code> to get its pieces.
-Each call to <code>func</code> must return a string that concatenates
-with previous results.
-A return of <b>nil</b> (or no value) signals the end of the chunk.
-
-
-<p>
-If there are no errors, 
-returns the compiled chunk as a function;
-otherwise, returns <b>nil</b> plus the error message.
-The environment of the returned function is the global environment.
-
-
-<p>
-<code>chunkname</code> is used as the chunk name for error messages
-and debug information.
-When absent,
-it defaults to "<code>=(load)</code>".
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-loadfile"><code>loadfile ([filename])</code></a></h3>
-
-
-<p>
-Similar to <a href="#pdf-load"><code>load</code></a>,
-but gets the chunk from file <code>filename</code>
-or from the standard input,
-if no file name is given.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-loadstring"><code>loadstring (string [, chunkname])</code></a></h3>
-
-
-<p>
-Similar to <a href="#pdf-load"><code>load</code></a>,
-but gets the chunk from the given string.
-
-
-<p>
-To load and run a given string, use the idiom
-
-<pre>
-     assert(loadstring(s))()
-</pre>
-
-<p>
-When absent,
-<code>chunkname</code> defaults to the given string.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-next"><code>next (table [, index])</code></a></h3>
-
-
-<p>
-Allows a program to traverse all fields of a table.
-Its first argument is a table and its second argument
-is an index in this table.
-<code>next</code> returns the next index of the table
-and its associated value.
-When called with <b>nil</b> as its second argument,
-<code>next</code> returns an initial index
-and its associated value.
-When called with the last index,
-or with <b>nil</b> in an empty table,
-<code>next</code> returns <b>nil</b>.
-If the second argument is absent, then it is interpreted as <b>nil</b>.
-In particular,
-you can use <code>next(t)</code> to check whether a table is empty.
-
-
-<p>
-The order in which the indices are enumerated is not specified,
-<em>even for numeric indices</em>.
-(To traverse a table in numeric order,
-use a numerical <b>for</b> or the <a href="#pdf-ipairs"><code>ipairs</code></a> function.)
-
-
-<p>
-The behavior of <code>next</code> is <em>undefined</em> if,
-during the traversal,
-you assign any value to a non-existent field in the table.
-You may however modify existing fields.
-In particular, you may clear existing fields.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-pairs"><code>pairs (t)</code></a></h3>
-
-
-<p>
-Returns three values: the <a href="#pdf-next"><code>next</code></a> function, the table <code>t</code>, and <b>nil</b>,
-so that the construction
-
-<pre>
-     for k,v in pairs(t) do <em>body</em> end
-</pre><p>
-will iterate over all key&ndash;value pairs of table <code>t</code>.
-
-
-<p>
-See function <a href="#pdf-next"><code>next</code></a> for the caveats of modifying
-the table during its traversal.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-pcall"><code>pcall (f, arg1, &middot;&middot;&middot;)</code></a></h3>
-
-
-<p>
-Calls function <code>f</code> with
-the given arguments in <em>protected mode</em>.
-This means that any error inside&nbsp;<code>f</code> is not propagated;
-instead, <code>pcall</code> catches the error
-and returns a status code.
-Its first result is the status code (a boolean),
-which is true if the call succeeds without errors.
-In such case, <code>pcall</code> also returns all results from the call,
-after this first result.
-In case of any error, <code>pcall</code> returns <b>false</b> plus the error message.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-print"><code>print (&middot;&middot;&middot;)</code></a></h3>
-Receives any number of arguments,
-and prints their values to <code>stdout</code>,
-using the <a href="#pdf-tostring"><code>tostring</code></a> function to convert them to strings.
-<code>print</code> is not intended for formatted output,
-but only as a quick way to show a value,
-typically for debugging.
-For formatted output, use <a href="#pdf-string.format"><code>string.format</code></a>.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-rawequal"><code>rawequal (v1, v2)</code></a></h3>
-Checks whether <code>v1</code> is equal to <code>v2</code>,
-without invoking any metamethod.
-Returns a boolean.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-rawget"><code>rawget (table, index)</code></a></h3>
-Gets the real value of <code>table[index]</code>,
-without invoking any metamethod.
-<code>table</code> must be a table;
-<code>index</code> may be any value.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-rawset"><code>rawset (table, index, value)</code></a></h3>
-Sets the real value of <code>table[index]</code> to <code>value</code>,
-without invoking any metamethod.
-<code>table</code> must be a table,
-<code>index</code> any value different from <b>nil</b>,
-and <code>value</code> any Lua value.
-
-
-<p>
-This function returns <code>table</code>.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-select"><code>select (index, &middot;&middot;&middot;)</code></a></h3>
-
-
-<p>
-If <code>index</code> is a number,
-returns all arguments after argument number <code>index</code>.
-Otherwise, <code>index</code> must be the string <code>"#"</code>,
-and <code>select</code> returns the total number of extra arguments it received.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-setfenv"><code>setfenv (f, table)</code></a></h3>
-
-
-<p>
-Sets the environment to be used by the given function.
-<code>f</code> can be a Lua function or a number
-that specifies the function at that stack level:
-Level&nbsp;1 is the function calling <code>setfenv</code>.
-<code>setfenv</code> returns the given function.
-
-
-<p>
-As a special case, when <code>f</code> is 0 <code>setfenv</code> changes
-the environment of the running thread.
-In this case, <code>setfenv</code> returns no values.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-setmetatable"><code>setmetatable (table, metatable)</code></a></h3>
-
-
-<p>
-Sets the metatable for the given table.
-(You cannot change the metatable of other types from Lua, only from&nbsp;C.)
-If <code>metatable</code> is <b>nil</b>,
-removes the metatable of the given table.
-If the original metatable has a <code>"__metatable"</code> field,
-raises an error.
-
-
-<p>
-This function returns <code>table</code>.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-tonumber"><code>tonumber (e [, base])</code></a></h3>
-Tries to convert its argument to a number.
-If the argument is already a number or a string convertible
-to a number, then <code>tonumber</code> returns this number;
-otherwise, it returns <b>nil</b>.
-
-
-<p>
-An optional argument specifies the base to interpret the numeral.
-The base may be any integer between 2 and 36, inclusive.
-In bases above&nbsp;10, the letter '<code>A</code>' (in either upper or lower case)
-represents&nbsp;10, '<code>B</code>' represents&nbsp;11, and so forth,
-with '<code>Z</code>' representing 35.
-In base 10 (the default), the number may have a decimal part,
-as well as an optional exponent part (see <a href="#2.1">&sect;2.1</a>).
-In other bases, only unsigned integers are accepted.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-tostring"><code>tostring (e)</code></a></h3>
-Receives an argument of any type and
-converts it to a string in a reasonable format.
-For complete control of how numbers are converted,
-use <a href="#pdf-string.format"><code>string.format</code></a>.
-
-
-<p>
-If the metatable of <code>e</code> has a <code>"__tostring"</code> field,
-then <code>tostring</code> calls the corresponding value
-with <code>e</code> as argument,
-and uses the result of the call as its result.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-type"><code>type (v)</code></a></h3>
-Returns the type of its only argument, coded as a string.
-The possible results of this function are
-"<code>nil</code>" (a string, not the value <b>nil</b>),
-"<code>number</code>",
-"<code>string</code>",
-"<code>boolean</code>",
-"<code>table</code>",
-"<code>function</code>",
-"<code>thread</code>",
-and "<code>userdata</code>".
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-unpack"><code>unpack (list [, i [, j]])</code></a></h3>
-Returns the elements from the given table.
-This function is equivalent to
-
-<pre>
-     return list[i], list[i+1], &middot;&middot;&middot;, list[j]
-</pre><p>
-except that the above code can be written only for a fixed number
-of elements.
-By default, <code>i</code> is&nbsp;1 and <code>j</code> is the length of the list,
-as defined by the length operator (see <a href="#2.5.5">&sect;2.5.5</a>).
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-_VERSION"><code>_VERSION</code></a></h3>
-A global variable (not a function) that
-holds a string containing the current interpreter version.
-The current contents of this variable is "<code>Lua 5.1</code>".
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-xpcall"><code>xpcall (f, err)</code></a></h3>
-
-
-<p>
-This function is similar to <a href="#pdf-pcall"><code>pcall</code></a>,
-except that you can set a new error handler.
-
-
-<p>
-<code>xpcall</code> calls function <code>f</code> in protected mode,
-using <code>err</code> as the error handler.
-Any error inside <code>f</code> is not propagated;
-instead, <code>xpcall</code> catches the error,
-calls the <code>err</code> function with the original error object,
-and returns a status code.
-Its first result is the status code (a boolean),
-which is true if the call succeeds without errors.
-In this case, <code>xpcall</code> also returns all results from the call,
-after this first result.
-In case of any error,
-<code>xpcall</code> returns <b>false</b> plus the result from <code>err</code>.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<h2>5.2 - <a name="5.2">Coroutine Manipulation</a></h2>
-
-<p>
-The operations related to coroutines comprise a sub-library of
-the basic library and come inside the table <a name="pdf-coroutine"><code>coroutine</code></a>.
-See <a href="#2.11">&sect;2.11</a> for a general description of coroutines.
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-coroutine.create"><code>coroutine.create (f)</code></a></h3>
-
-
-<p>
-Creates a new coroutine, with body <code>f</code>.
-<code>f</code> must be a Lua function.
-Returns this new coroutine,
-an object with type <code>"thread"</code>.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-coroutine.resume"><code>coroutine.resume (co [, val1, &middot;&middot;&middot;])</code></a></h3>
-
-
-<p>
-Starts or continues the execution of coroutine <code>co</code>.
-The first time you resume a coroutine,
-it starts running its body.
-The values <code>val1</code>, &middot;&middot;&middot; are passed
-as the arguments to the body function.
-If the coroutine has yielded,
-<code>resume</code> restarts it;
-the values <code>val1</code>, &middot;&middot;&middot; are passed
-as the results from the yield.
-
-
-<p>
-If the coroutine runs without any errors,
-<code>resume</code> returns <b>true</b> plus any values passed to <code>yield</code>
-(if the coroutine yields) or any values returned by the body function
-(if the coroutine terminates).
-If there is any error,
-<code>resume</code> returns <b>false</b> plus the error message.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-coroutine.running"><code>coroutine.running ()</code></a></h3>
-
-
-<p>
-Returns the running coroutine,
-or <b>nil</b> when called by the main thread.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-coroutine.status"><code>coroutine.status (co)</code></a></h3>
-
-
-<p>
-Returns the status of coroutine <code>co</code>, as a string:
-<code>"running"</code>,
-if the coroutine is running (that is, it called <code>status</code>);
-<code>"suspended"</code>, if the coroutine is suspended in a call to <code>yield</code>,
-or if it has not started running yet;
-<code>"normal"</code> if the coroutine is active but not running
-(that is, it has resumed another coroutine);
-and <code>"dead"</code> if the coroutine has finished its body function,
-or if it has stopped with an error.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-coroutine.wrap"><code>coroutine.wrap (f)</code></a></h3>
-
-
-<p>
-Creates a new coroutine, with body <code>f</code>.
-<code>f</code> must be a Lua function.
-Returns a function that resumes the coroutine each time it is called.
-Any arguments passed to the function behave as the
-extra arguments to <code>resume</code>.
-Returns the same values returned by <code>resume</code>,
-except the first boolean.
-In case of error, propagates the error.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-coroutine.yield"><code>coroutine.yield (&middot;&middot;&middot;)</code></a></h3>
-
-
-<p>
-Suspends the execution of the calling coroutine.
-The coroutine cannot be running a C&nbsp;function,
-a metamethod, or an iterator.
-Any arguments to <code>yield</code> are passed as extra results to <code>resume</code>.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<h2>5.3 - <a name="5.3">Modules</a></h2>
-
-<p>
-The package library provides basic
-facilities for loading and building modules in Lua.
-It exports two of its functions directly in the global environment:
-<a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a> and <a href="#pdf-module"><code>module</code></a>.
-Everything else is exported in a table <a name="pdf-package"><code>package</code></a>.
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-module"><code>module (name [, &middot;&middot;&middot;])</code></a></h3>
-
-
-<p>
-Creates a module.
-If there is a table in <code>package.loaded[name]</code>,
-this table is the module.
-Otherwise, if there is a global table <code>t</code> with the given name,
-this table is the module.
-Otherwise creates a new table <code>t</code> and
-sets it as the value of the global <code>name</code> and
-the value of <code>package.loaded[name]</code>.
-This function also initializes <code>t._NAME</code> with the given name,
-<code>t._M</code> with the module (<code>t</code> itself),
-and <code>t._PACKAGE</code> with the package name
-(the full module name minus last component; see below).
-Finally, <code>module</code> sets <code>t</code> as the new environment
-of the current function and the new value of <code>package.loaded[name]</code>,
-so that <a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a> returns <code>t</code>.
-
-
-<p>
-If <code>name</code> is a compound name
-(that is, one with components separated by dots),
-<code>module</code> creates (or reuses, if they already exist)
-tables for each component.
-For instance, if <code>name</code> is <code>a.b.c</code>,
-then <code>module</code> stores the module table in field <code>c</code> of
-field <code>b</code> of global <code>a</code>.
-
-
-<p>
-This function may receive optional <em>options</em> after
-the module name,
-where each option is a function to be applied over the module.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-require"><code>require (modname)</code></a></h3>
-
-
-<p>
-Loads the given module.
-The function starts by looking into the <a href="#pdf-package.loaded"><code>package.loaded</code></a> table
-to determine whether <code>modname</code> is already loaded.
-If it is, then <code>require</code> returns the value stored
-at <code>package.loaded[modname]</code>.
-Otherwise, it tries to find a <em>loader</em> for the module.
-
-
-<p>
-To find a loader,
-<code>require</code> is guided by the <a href="#pdf-package.loaders"><code>package.loaders</code></a> array.
-By changing this array,
-we can change how <code>require</code> looks for a module.
-The following explanation is based on the default configuration
-for <a href="#pdf-package.loaders"><code>package.loaders</code></a>.
-
-
-<p>
-First <code>require</code> queries <code>package.preload[modname]</code>.
-If it has a value,
-this value (which should be a function) is the loader.
-Otherwise <code>require</code> searches for a Lua loader using the
-path stored in <a href="#pdf-package.path"><code>package.path</code></a>.
-If that also fails, it searches for a C&nbsp;loader using the
-path stored in <a href="#pdf-package.cpath"><code>package.cpath</code></a>.
-If that also fails,
-it tries an <em>all-in-one</em> loader (see <a href="#pdf-package.loaders"><code>package.loaders</code></a>).
-
-
-<p>
-Once a loader is found,
-<code>require</code> calls the loader with a single argument, <code>modname</code>.
-If the loader returns any value,
-<code>require</code> assigns the returned value to <code>package.loaded[modname]</code>.
-If the loader returns no value and
-has not assigned any value to <code>package.loaded[modname]</code>,
-then <code>require</code> assigns <b>true</b> to this entry.
-In any case, <code>require</code> returns the
-final value of <code>package.loaded[modname]</code>.
-
-
-<p>
-If there is any error loading or running the module,
-or if it cannot find any loader for the module,
-then <code>require</code> signals an error. 
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-package.cpath"><code>package.cpath</code></a></h3>
-
-
-<p>
-The path used by <a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a> to search for a C&nbsp;loader.
-
-
-<p>
-Lua initializes the C&nbsp;path <a href="#pdf-package.cpath"><code>package.cpath</code></a> in the same way
-it initializes the Lua path <a href="#pdf-package.path"><code>package.path</code></a>,
-using the environment variable <a name="pdf-LUA_CPATH"><code>LUA_CPATH</code></a>
-or a default path defined in <code>luaconf.h</code>.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-package.loaded"><code>package.loaded</code></a></h3>
-
-
-<p>
-A table used by <a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a> to control which
-modules are already loaded.
-When you require a module <code>modname</code> and
-<code>package.loaded[modname]</code> is not false,
-<a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a> simply returns the value stored there.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-package.loaders"><code>package.loaders</code></a></h3>
-
-
-<p>
-A table used by <a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a> to control how to load modules.
-
-
-<p>
-Each entry in this table is a <em>searcher function</em>.
-When looking for a module,
-<a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a> calls each of these searchers in ascending order,
-with the module name (the argument given to <a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a>) as its
-sole parameter.
-The function may return another function (the module <em>loader</em>)
-or a string explaining why it did not find that module
-(or <b>nil</b> if it has nothing to say).
-Lua initializes this table with four functions.
-
-
-<p>
-The first searcher simply looks for a loader in the
-<a href="#pdf-package.preload"><code>package.preload</code></a> table.
-
-
-<p>
-The second searcher looks for a loader as a Lua library,
-using the path stored at <a href="#pdf-package.path"><code>package.path</code></a>.
-A path is a sequence of <em>templates</em> separated by semicolons.
-For each template,
-the searcher will change each interrogation
-mark in the template by <code>filename</code>,
-which is the module name with each dot replaced by a
-"directory separator" (such as "<code>/</code>" in Unix);
-then it will try to open the resulting file name.
-So, for instance, if the Lua path is the string
-
-<pre>
-     "./?.lua;./?.lc;/usr/local/?/init.lua"
-</pre><p>
-the search for a Lua file for module <code>foo</code>
-will try to open the files
-<code>./foo.lua</code>, <code>./foo.lc</code>, and
-<code>/usr/local/foo/init.lua</code>, in that order.
-
-
-<p>
-The third searcher looks for a loader as a C&nbsp;library,
-using the path given by the variable <a href="#pdf-package.cpath"><code>package.cpath</code></a>.
-For instance,
-if the C&nbsp;path is the string
-
-<pre>
-     "./?.so;./?.dll;/usr/local/?/init.so"
-</pre><p>
-the searcher for module <code>foo</code>
-will try to open the files <code>./foo.so</code>, <code>./foo.dll</code>,
-and <code>/usr/local/foo/init.so</code>, in that order.
-Once it finds a C&nbsp;library,
-this searcher first uses a dynamic link facility to link the
-application with the library.
-Then it tries to find a C&nbsp;function inside the library to
-be used as the loader.
-The name of this C&nbsp;function is the string "<code>luaopen_</code>"
-concatenated with a copy of the module name where each dot
-is replaced by an underscore.
-Moreover, if the module name has a hyphen,
-its prefix up to (and including) the first hyphen is removed.
-For instance, if the module name is <code>a.v1-b.c</code>,
-the function name will be <code>luaopen_b_c</code>.
-
-
-<p>
-The fourth searcher tries an <em>all-in-one loader</em>.
-It searches the C&nbsp;path for a library for
-the root name of the given module.
-For instance, when requiring <code>a.b.c</code>,
-it will search for a C&nbsp;library for <code>a</code>.
-If found, it looks into it for an open function for
-the submodule;
-in our example, that would be <code>luaopen_a_b_c</code>.
-With this facility, a package can pack several C&nbsp;submodules
-into one single library,
-with each submodule keeping its original open function.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-package.loadlib"><code>package.loadlib (libname, funcname)</code></a></h3>
-
-
-<p>
-Dynamically links the host program with the C&nbsp;library <code>libname</code>.
-Inside this library, looks for a function <code>funcname</code>
-and returns this function as a C&nbsp;function.
-(So, <code>funcname</code> must follow the protocol (see <a href="#lua_CFunction"><code>lua_CFunction</code></a>)).
-
-
-<p>
-This is a low-level function.
-It completely bypasses the package and module system.
-Unlike <a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a>,
-it does not perform any path searching and
-does not automatically adds extensions.
-<code>libname</code> must be the complete file name of the C&nbsp;library,
-including if necessary a path and extension.
-<code>funcname</code> must be the exact name exported by the C&nbsp;library
-(which may depend on the C&nbsp;compiler and linker used).
-
-
-<p>
-This function is not supported by ANSI C.
-As such, it is only available on some platforms
-(Windows, Linux, Mac OS X, Solaris, BSD,
-plus other Unix systems that support the <code>dlfcn</code> standard).
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-package.path"><code>package.path</code></a></h3>
-
-
-<p>
-The path used by <a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a> to search for a Lua loader.
-
-
-<p>
-At start-up, Lua initializes this variable with
-the value of the environment variable <a name="pdf-LUA_PATH"><code>LUA_PATH</code></a> or
-with a default path defined in <code>luaconf.h</code>,
-if the environment variable is not defined.
-Any "<code>;;</code>" in the value of the environment variable
-is replaced by the default path.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-package.preload"><code>package.preload</code></a></h3>
-
-
-<p>
-A table to store loaders for specific modules
-(see <a href="#pdf-require"><code>require</code></a>).
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-package.seeall"><code>package.seeall (module)</code></a></h3>
-
-
-<p>
-Sets a metatable for <code>module</code> with
-its <code>__index</code> field referring to the global environment,
-so that this module inherits values
-from the global environment.
-To be used as an option to function <a href="#pdf-module"><code>module</code></a>.
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-<h2>5.4 - <a name="5.4">String Manipulation</a></h2>
-
-<p>
-This library provides generic functions for string manipulation,
-such as finding and extracting substrings, and pattern matching.
-When indexing a string in Lua, the first character is at position&nbsp;1
-(not at&nbsp;0, as in C).
-Indices are allowed to be negative and are interpreted as indexing backwards,
-from the end of the string.
-Thus, the last character is at position -1, and so on.
-
-
-<p>
-The string library provides all its functions inside the table
-<a name="pdf-string"><code>string</code></a>.
-It also sets a metatable for strings
-where the <code>__index</code> field points to the <code>string</code> table.
-Therefore, you can use the string functions in object-oriented style.
-For instance, <code>string.byte(s, i)</code>
-can be written as <code>s:byte(i)</code>.
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-string.byte"><code>string.byte (s [, i [, j]])</code></a></h3>
-Returns the internal numerical codes of the characters <code>s[i]</code>,
-<code>s[i+1]</code>, &middot;&middot;&middot;, <code>s[j]</code>.
-The default value for <code>i</code> is&nbsp;1;
-the default value for <code>j</code> is&nbsp;<code>i</code>.
-
-
-<p>
-Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-string.char"><code>string.char (&middot;&middot;&middot;)</code></a></h3>
-Receives zero or more integers.
-Returns a string with length equal to the number of arguments,
-in which each character has the internal numerical code equal
-to its corresponding argument.
-
-
-<p>
-Note that numerical codes are not necessarily portable across platforms.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-string.dump"><code>string.dump (function)</code></a></h3>
-
-
-<p>
-Returns a string containing a binary representation of the given function,
-so that a later <a href="#pdf-loadstring"><code>loadstring</code></a> on this string returns
-a copy of the function.
-<code>function</code> must be a Lua function without upvalues.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-string.find"><code>string.find (s, pattern [, init [, plain]])</code></a></h3>
-Looks for the first match of
-<code>pattern</code> in the string <code>s</code>.
-If it finds a match, then <code>find</code> returns the indices of&nbsp;<code>s</code>
-where this occurrence starts and ends;
-otherwise, it returns <b>nil</b>.
-A third, optional numerical argument <code>init</code> specifies
-where to start the search;
-its default value is&nbsp;1 and may be negative.
-A value of <b>true</b> as a fourth, optional argument <code>plain</code>
-turns off the pattern matching facilities,
-so the function does a plain "find substring" operation,
-with no characters in <code>pattern</code> being considered "magic".
-Note that if <code>plain</code> is given, then <code>init</code> must be given as well.
-
-
-<p>
-If the pattern has captures,
-then in a successful match
-the captured values are also returned,
-after the two indices.
-
-
-
-
-<p>
-<hr><h3><a name="pdf-string.format"><code>string.format (formatstring, &middot;&middot;&middot;)</code></a></h3>
-Returns a formatted version of its variable number of arguments
-following the description given in its first argument (which must be a string).
-The format string follows the same rules as the <code>printf</code> family of
-standard C&nbsp;functions.
-The only differences are that the options/modifiers
-<code>*</code>, <code>l</code>, <code>L</code>, <code>n</code>, <code>p</code>,
-and <code>h</code> are not supported
-and that there is an extra option, <code>q</code>.
-The <code>q</code> option formats a string in a form suitable to be safely read
-back by the Lua interpreter:
-the string is written between double quotes,
-and all double quotes, newlines, embedded zeros,
-and backslashes in the string
-are correctly escaped when written.
-For instance, the call
-
-<pre>
-     string.format('%q', 'a string with "quotes" and \n new line')
-</pre><p>
-will produce the string:
-
-<pre>
-     "a string with \"quotes\" and \
-      new line"
-</pre>
-
-<p>
-The options <code>c</code>, <code>d</code>, <code>E</code>, <code>e</code>, <code>f</code>,
-<code>g</code>, <code>G</code>, <code>i</code>, <code>o</code>, <code>u</code>, <code>X</code>, and <code>x</code> all
-expect a number as argument,
-whereas <code>q</code> and <code>s</code> expect a string.
-
-
-<p>
-This function does not accept string values
-containing embedded zeros,
-except as arguments to the <code>q</code> option.
-
-
-
-