lua/lauxlib.c
author Ryan C. Gordon <icculus@icculus.org>
Fri, 23 Jun 2017 17:28:03 -0400
changeset 58 1390348facc7
parent 0 d7ee4e2ed49d
permissions -rw-r--r--
Command line tool that decrypts an OPVault keychain and dumps it to stdout.

To compile: gcc -o opvault opvault.c cJSON.c -lcrypto

Usage: ./opvault </path/to/mykeychain.opvault> <password>

This is just a proof of concept; I'll be recycling this into proper OPVault
support in 1pass later and deleting this tool.

This uses OpenSSL's libcrypto for the math instead of all the homegrown
crypto this project is otherwise using. I'll probably migrate the rest in
this direction, too, since this wasn't as bad as I expected to use and
gets you all the package-manager mojo of automatic bug fixes and security
patches and shared code, etc.

cJSON parses JSON in C. That is from https://github.com/DaveGamble/cJSON

An example OPVault keychain from AgileBits is available here:

https://cache.agilebits.com/security-kb/
/*
** $Id: lauxlib.c,v 1.248.1.1 2013/04/12 18:48:47 roberto Exp $
** Auxiliary functions for building Lua libraries
** See Copyright Notice in lua.h
*/


#include <errno.h>
#include <stdarg.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>


/* This file uses only the official API of Lua.
** Any function declared here could be written as an application function.
*/

#define lauxlib_c
#define LUA_LIB

#include "lua.h"

#include "lauxlib.h"


/*
** {======================================================
** Traceback
** =======================================================
*/


#define LEVELS1	12	/* size of the first part of the stack */
#define LEVELS2	10	/* size of the second part of the stack */



/*
** search for 'objidx' in table at index -1.
** return 1 + string at top if find a good name.
*/
static int findfield (lua_State *L, int objidx, int level) {
  if (level == 0 || !lua_istable(L, -1))
    return 0;  /* not found */
  lua_pushnil(L);  /* start 'next' loop */
  while (lua_next(L, -2)) {  /* for each pair in table */
    if (lua_type(L, -2) == LUA_TSTRING) {  /* ignore non-string keys */
      if (lua_rawequal(L, objidx, -1)) {  /* found object? */
        lua_pop(L, 1);  /* remove value (but keep name) */
        return 1;
      }
      else if (findfield(L, objidx, level - 1)) {  /* try recursively */
        lua_remove(L, -2);  /* remove table (but keep name) */
        lua_pushliteral(L, ".");
        lua_insert(L, -2);  /* place '.' between the two names */
        lua_concat(L, 3);
        return 1;
      }
    }
    lua_pop(L, 1);  /* remove value */
  }
  return 0;  /* not found */
}


static int pushglobalfuncname (lua_State *L, lua_Debug *ar) {
  int top = lua_gettop(L);
  lua_getinfo(L, "f", ar);  /* push function */
  lua_pushglobaltable(L);
  if (findfield(L, top + 1, 2)) {
    lua_copy(L, -1, top + 1);  /* move name to proper place */
    lua_pop(L, 2);  /* remove pushed values */
    return 1;
  }
  else {
    lua_settop(L, top);  /* remove function and global table */
    return 0;
  }
}


static void pushfuncname (lua_State *L, lua_Debug *ar) {
  if (*ar->namewhat != '\0')  /* is there a name? */
    lua_pushfstring(L, "function " LUA_QS, ar->name);
  else if (*ar->what == 'm')  /* main? */
      lua_pushliteral(L, "main chunk");
  else if (*ar->what == 'C') {
    if (pushglobalfuncname(L, ar)) {
      lua_pushfstring(L, "function " LUA_QS, lua_tostring(L, -1));
      lua_remove(L, -2);  /* remove name */
    }
    else
      lua_pushliteral(L, "?");
  }
  else
    lua_pushfstring(L, "function <%s:%d>", ar->short_src, ar->linedefined);
}


static int countlevels (lua_State *L) {
  lua_Debug ar;
  int li = 1, le = 1;
  /* find an upper bound */
  while (lua_getstack(L, le, &ar)) { li = le; le *= 2; }
  /* do a binary search */
  while (li < le) {
    int m = (li + le)/2;
    if (lua_getstack(L, m, &ar)) li = m + 1;
    else le = m;
  }
  return le - 1;
}


LUALIB_API void luaL_traceback (lua_State *L, lua_State *L1,
                                const char *msg, int level) {
  lua_Debug ar;
  int top = lua_gettop(L);
  int numlevels = countlevels(L1);
  int mark = (numlevels > LEVELS1 + LEVELS2) ? LEVELS1 : 0;
  if (msg) lua_pushfstring(L, "%s\n", msg);
  lua_pushliteral(L, "stack traceback:");
  while (lua_getstack(L1, level++, &ar)) {
    if (level == mark) {  /* too many levels? */
      lua_pushliteral(L, "\n\t...");  /* add a '...' */
      level = numlevels - LEVELS2;  /* and skip to last ones */
    }
    else {
      lua_getinfo(L1, "Slnt", &ar);
      lua_pushfstring(L, "\n\t%s:", ar.short_src);
      if (ar.currentline > 0)
        lua_pushfstring(L, "%d:", ar.currentline);
      lua_pushliteral(L, " in ");
      pushfuncname(L, &ar);
      if (ar.istailcall)
        lua_pushliteral(L, "\n\t(...tail calls...)");
      lua_concat(L, lua_gettop(L) - top);
    }
  }
  lua_concat(L, lua_gettop(L) - top);
}

/* }====================================================== */


/*
** {======================================================
** Error-report functions
** =======================================================
*/

LUALIB_API int luaL_argerror (lua_State *L, int narg, const char *extramsg) {
  lua_Debug ar;
  if (!lua_getstack(L, 0, &ar))  /* no stack frame? */
    return luaL_error(L, "bad argument #%d (%s)", narg, extramsg);
  lua_getinfo(L, "n", &ar);
  if (strcmp(ar.namewhat, "method") == 0) {
    narg--;  /* do not count `self' */
    if (narg == 0)  /* error is in the self argument itself? */
      return luaL_error(L, "calling " LUA_QS " on bad self (%s)",
                           ar.name, extramsg);
  }
  if (ar.name == NULL)
    ar.name = (pushglobalfuncname(L, &ar)) ? lua_tostring(L, -1) : "?";
  return luaL_error(L, "bad argument #%d to " LUA_QS " (%s)",
                        narg, ar.name, extramsg);
}


static int typeerror (lua_State *L, int narg, const char *tname) {
  const char *msg = lua_pushfstring(L, "%s expected, got %s",
                                    tname, luaL_typename(L, narg));
  return luaL_argerror(L, narg, msg);
}


static void tag_error (lua_State *L, int narg, int tag) {
  typeerror(L, narg, lua_typename(L, tag));
}


LUALIB_API void luaL_where (lua_State *L, int level) {
  lua_Debug ar;
  if (lua_getstack(L, level, &ar)) {  /* check function at level */
    lua_getinfo(L, "Sl", &ar);  /* get info about it */
    if (ar.currentline > 0) {  /* is there info? */
      lua_pushfstring(L, "%s:%d: ", ar.short_src, ar.currentline);
      return;
    }
  }
  lua_pushliteral(L, "");  /* else, no information available... */
}


LUALIB_API int luaL_error (lua_State *L, const char *fmt, ...) {
  va_list argp;
  va_start(argp, fmt);
  luaL_where(L, 1);
  lua_pushvfstring(L, fmt, argp);
  va_end(argp);
  lua_concat(L, 2);
  return lua_error(L);
}


LUALIB_API int luaL_fileresult (lua_State *L, int stat, const char *fname) {
  int en = errno;  /* calls to Lua API may change this value */
  if (stat) {
    lua_pushboolean(L, 1);
    return 1;
  }
  else {
    lua_pushnil(L);
    if (fname)
      lua_pushfstring(L, "%s: %s", fname, strerror(en));
    else
      lua_pushstring(L, strerror(en));
    lua_pushinteger(L, en);
    return 3;
  }
}


#if !defined(inspectstat)	/* { */

#if defined(LUA_USE_POSIX)

#include <sys/wait.h>

/*
** use appropriate macros to interpret 'pclose' return status
*/
#define inspectstat(stat,what)  \
   if (WIFEXITED(stat)) { stat = WEXITSTATUS(stat); } \
   else if (WIFSIGNALED(stat)) { stat = WTERMSIG(stat); what = "signal"; }

#else

#define inspectstat(stat,what)  /* no op */

#endif

#endif				/* } */


LUALIB_API int luaL_execresult (lua_State *L, int stat) {
  const char *what = "exit";  /* type of termination */
  if (stat == -1)  /* error? */
    return luaL_fileresult(L, 0, NULL);
  else {
    inspectstat(stat, what);  /* interpret result */
    if (*what == 'e' && stat == 0)  /* successful termination? */
      lua_pushboolean(L, 1);
    else
      lua_pushnil(L);
    lua_pushstring(L, what);
    lua_pushinteger(L, stat);
    return 3;  /* return true/nil,what,code */
  }
}

/* }====================================================== */


/*
** {======================================================
** Userdata's metatable manipulation
** =======================================================
*/

LUALIB_API int luaL_newmetatable (lua_State *L, const char *tname) {
  luaL_getmetatable(L, tname);  /* try to get metatable */
  if (!lua_isnil(L, -1))  /* name already in use? */
    return 0;  /* leave previous value on top, but return 0 */
  lua_pop(L, 1);
  lua_newtable(L);  /* create metatable */
  lua_pushvalue(L, -1);
  lua_setfield(L, LUA_REGISTRYINDEX, tname);  /* registry.name = metatable */
  return 1;
}


LUALIB_API void luaL_setmetatable (lua_State *L, const char *tname) {
  luaL_getmetatable(L, tname);
  lua_setmetatable(L, -2);
}


LUALIB_API void *luaL_testudata (lua_State *L, int ud, const char *tname) {
  void *p = lua_touserdata(L, ud);
  if (p != NULL) {  /* value is a userdata? */
    if (lua_getmetatable(L, ud)) {  /* does it have a metatable? */
      luaL_getmetatable(L, tname);  /* get correct metatable */
      if (!lua_rawequal(L, -1, -2))  /* not the same? */
        p = NULL;  /* value is a userdata with wrong metatable */
      lua_pop(L, 2);  /* remove both metatables */
      return p;
    }
  }
  return NULL;  /* value is not a userdata with a metatable */
}


LUALIB_API void *luaL_checkudata (lua_State *L, int ud, const char *tname) {
  void *p = luaL_testudata(L, ud, tname);
  if (p == NULL) typeerror(L, ud, tname);
  return p;
}

/* }====================================================== */


/*
** {======================================================
** Argument check functions
** =======================================================
*/

LUALIB_API int luaL_checkoption (lua_State *L, int narg, const char *def,
                                 const char *const lst[]) {
  const char *name = (def) ? luaL_optstring(L, narg, def) :
                             luaL_checkstring(L, narg);
  int i;
  for (i=0; lst[i]; i++)
    if (strcmp(lst[i], name) == 0)
      return i;
  return luaL_argerror(L, narg,
                       lua_pushfstring(L, "invalid option " LUA_QS, name));
}


LUALIB_API void luaL_checkstack (lua_State *L, int space, const char *msg) {
  /* keep some extra space to run error routines, if needed */
  const int extra = LUA_MINSTACK;
  if (!lua_checkstack(L, space + extra)) {
    if (msg)
      luaL_error(L, "stack overflow (%s)", msg);
    else
      luaL_error(L, "stack overflow");
  }
}


LUALIB_API void luaL_checktype (lua_State *L, int narg, int t) {
  if (lua_type(L, narg) != t)
    tag_error(L, narg, t);
}


LUALIB_API void luaL_checkany (lua_State *L, int narg) {
  if (lua_type(L, narg) == LUA_TNONE)
    luaL_argerror(L, narg, "value expected");
}


LUALIB_API const char *luaL_checklstring (lua_State *L, int narg, size_t *len) {
  const char *s = lua_tolstring(L, narg, len);
  if (!s) tag_error(L, narg, LUA_TSTRING);
  return s;
}


LUALIB_API const char *luaL_optlstring (lua_State *L, int narg,
                                        const char *def, size_t *len) {
  if (lua_isnoneornil(L, narg)) {
    if (len)
      *len = (def ? strlen(def) : 0);
    return def;
  }
  else return luaL_checklstring(L, narg, len);
}


LUALIB_API lua_Number luaL_checknumber (lua_State *L, int narg) {
  int isnum;
  lua_Number d = lua_tonumberx(L, narg, &isnum);
  if (!isnum)
    tag_error(L, narg, LUA_TNUMBER);
  return d;
}


LUALIB_API lua_Number luaL_optnumber (lua_State *L, int narg, lua_Number def) {
  return luaL_opt(L, luaL_checknumber, narg, def);
}


LUALIB_API lua_Integer luaL_checkinteger (lua_State *L, int narg) {
  int isnum;
  lua_Integer d = lua_tointegerx(L, narg, &isnum);
  if (!isnum)
    tag_error(L, narg, LUA_TNUMBER);
  return d;
}


LUALIB_API lua_Unsigned luaL_checkunsigned (lua_State *L, int narg) {
  int isnum;
  lua_Unsigned d = lua_tounsignedx(L, narg, &isnum);
  if (!isnum)
    tag_error(L, narg, LUA_TNUMBER);
  return d;
}


LUALIB_API lua_Integer luaL_optinteger (lua_State *L, int narg,
                                                      lua_Integer def) {
  return luaL_opt(L, luaL_checkinteger, narg, def);
}


LUALIB_API lua_Unsigned luaL_optunsigned (lua_State *L, int narg,
                                                        lua_Unsigned def) {
  return luaL_opt(L, luaL_checkunsigned, narg, def);
}

/* }====================================================== */


/*
** {======================================================
** Generic Buffer manipulation
** =======================================================
*/

/*
** check whether buffer is using a userdata on the stack as a temporary
** buffer
*/
#define buffonstack(B)	((B)->b != (B)->initb)


/*
** returns a pointer to a free area with at least 'sz' bytes
*/
LUALIB_API char *luaL_prepbuffsize (luaL_Buffer *B, size_t sz) {
  lua_State *L = B->L;
  if (B->size - B->n < sz) {  /* not enough space? */
    char *newbuff;
    size_t newsize = B->size * 2;  /* double buffer size */
    if (newsize - B->n < sz)  /* not big enough? */
      newsize = B->n + sz;
    if (newsize < B->n || newsize - B->n < sz)
      luaL_error(L, "buffer too large");
    /* create larger buffer */
    newbuff = (char *)lua_newuserdata(L, newsize * sizeof(char));
    /* move content to new buffer */
    memcpy(newbuff, B->b, B->n * sizeof(char));
    if (buffonstack(B))
      lua_remove(L, -2);  /* remove old buffer */
    B->b = newbuff;
    B->size = newsize;
  }
  return &B->b[B->n];
}


LUALIB_API void luaL_addlstring (luaL_Buffer *B, const char *s, size_t l) {
  char *b = luaL_prepbuffsize(B, l);
  memcpy(b, s, l * sizeof(char));
  luaL_addsize(B, l);
}


LUALIB_API void luaL_addstring (luaL_Buffer *B, const char *s) {
  luaL_addlstring(B, s, strlen(s));
}


LUALIB_API void luaL_pushresult (luaL_Buffer *B) {
  lua_State *L = B->L;
  lua_pushlstring(L, B->b, B->n);
  if (buffonstack(B))
    lua_remove(L, -2);  /* remove old buffer */
}


LUALIB_API void luaL_pushresultsize (luaL_Buffer *B, size_t sz) {
  luaL_addsize(B, sz);
  luaL_pushresult(B);
}


LUALIB_API void luaL_addvalue (luaL_Buffer *B) {
  lua_State *L = B->L;
  size_t l;
  const char *s = lua_tolstring(L, -1, &l);
  if (buffonstack(B))
    lua_insert(L, -2);  /* put value below buffer */
  luaL_addlstring(B, s, l);
  lua_remove(L, (buffonstack(B)) ? -2 : -1);  /* remove value */
}


LUALIB_API void luaL_buffinit (lua_State *L, luaL_Buffer *B) {
  B->L = L;
  B->b = B->initb;
  B->n = 0;
  B->size = LUAL_BUFFERSIZE;
}


LUALIB_API char *luaL_buffinitsize (lua_State *L, luaL_Buffer *B, size_t sz) {
  luaL_buffinit(L, B);
  return luaL_prepbuffsize(B, sz);
}

/* }====================================================== */


/*
** {======================================================
** Reference system
** =======================================================
*/

/* index of free-list header */
#define freelist	0


LUALIB_API int luaL_ref (lua_State *L, int t) {
  int ref;
  if (lua_isnil(L, -1)) {
    lua_pop(L, 1);  /* remove from stack */
    return LUA_REFNIL;  /* `nil' has a unique fixed reference */
  }
  t = lua_absindex(L, t);
  lua_rawgeti(L, t, freelist);  /* get first free element */
  ref = (int)lua_tointeger(L, -1);  /* ref = t[freelist] */
  lua_pop(L, 1);  /* remove it from stack */
  if (ref != 0) {  /* any free element? */
    lua_rawgeti(L, t, ref);  /* remove it from list */
    lua_rawseti(L, t, freelist);  /* (t[freelist] = t[ref]) */
  }
  else  /* no free elements */
    ref = (int)lua_rawlen(L, t) + 1;  /* get a new reference */
  lua_rawseti(L, t, ref);
  return ref;
}


LUALIB_API void luaL_unref (lua_State *L, int t, int ref) {
  if (ref >= 0) {
    t = lua_absindex(L, t);
    lua_rawgeti(L, t, freelist);
    lua_rawseti(L, t, ref);  /* t[ref] = t[freelist] */
    lua_pushinteger(L, ref);
    lua_rawseti(L, t, freelist);  /* t[freelist] = ref */
  }
}

/* }====================================================== */


/*
** {======================================================
** Load functions
** =======================================================
*/

typedef struct LoadF {
  int n;  /* number of pre-read characters */
  FILE *f;  /* file being read */
  char buff[LUAL_BUFFERSIZE];  /* area for reading file */
} LoadF;


static const char *getF (lua_State *L, void *ud, size_t *size) {
  LoadF *lf = (LoadF *)ud;
  (void)L;  /* not used */
  if (lf->n > 0) {  /* are there pre-read characters to be read? */
    *size = lf->n;  /* return them (chars already in buffer) */
    lf->n = 0;  /* no more pre-read characters */
  }
  else {  /* read a block from file */
    /* 'fread' can return > 0 *and* set the EOF flag. If next call to
       'getF' called 'fread', it might still wait for user input.
       The next check avoids this problem. */
    if (feof(lf->f)) return NULL;
    *size = fread(lf->buff, 1, sizeof(lf->buff), lf->f);  /* read block */
  }
  return lf->buff;
}


static int errfile (lua_State *L, const char *what, int fnameindex) {
  const char *serr = strerror(errno);
  const char *filename = lua_tostring(L, fnameindex) + 1;
  lua_pushfstring(L, "cannot %s %s: %s", what, filename, serr);
  lua_remove(L, fnameindex);
  return LUA_ERRFILE;
}


static int skipBOM (LoadF *lf) {
  const char *p = "\xEF\xBB\xBF";  /* Utf8 BOM mark */
  int c;
  lf->n = 0;
  do {
    c = getc(lf->f);
    if (c == EOF || c != *(const unsigned char *)p++) return c;
    lf->buff[lf->n++] = c;  /* to be read by the parser */
  } while (*p != '\0');
  lf->n = 0;  /* prefix matched; discard it */
  return getc(lf->f);  /* return next character */
}


/*
** reads the first character of file 'f' and skips an optional BOM mark
** in its beginning plus its first line if it starts with '#'. Returns
** true if it skipped the first line.  In any case, '*cp' has the
** first "valid" character of the file (after the optional BOM and
** a first-line comment).
*/
static int skipcomment (LoadF *lf, int *cp) {
  int c = *cp = skipBOM(lf);
  if (c == '#') {  /* first line is a comment (Unix exec. file)? */
    do {  /* skip first line */
      c = getc(lf->f);
    } while (c != EOF && c != '\n') ;
    *cp = getc(lf->f);  /* skip end-of-line, if present */
    return 1;  /* there was a comment */
  }
  else return 0;  /* no comment */
}


LUALIB_API int luaL_loadfilex (lua_State *L, const char *filename,
                                             const char *mode) {
  LoadF lf;
  int status, readstatus;
  int c;
  int fnameindex = lua_gettop(L) + 1;  /* index of filename on the stack */
  if (filename == NULL) {
    lua_pushliteral(L, "=stdin");
    lf.f = stdin;
  }
  else {
    lua_pushfstring(L, "@%s", filename);
    lf.f = fopen(filename, "r");
    if (lf.f == NULL) return errfile(L, "open", fnameindex);
  }
  if (skipcomment(&lf, &c))  /* read initial portion */
    lf.buff[lf.n++] = '\n';  /* add line to correct line numbers */
  if (c == LUA_SIGNATURE[0] && filename) {  /* binary file? */
    lf.f = freopen(filename, "rb", lf.f);  /* reopen in binary mode */
    if (lf.f == NULL) return errfile(L, "reopen", fnameindex);
    skipcomment(&lf, &c);  /* re-read initial portion */
  }
  if (c != EOF)
    lf.buff[lf.n++] = c;  /* 'c' is the first character of the stream */
  status = lua_load(L, getF, &lf, lua_tostring(L, -1), mode);
  readstatus = ferror(lf.f);
  if (filename) fclose(lf.f);  /* close file (even in case of errors) */
  if (readstatus) {
    lua_settop(L, fnameindex);  /* ignore results from `lua_load' */
    return errfile(L, "read", fnameindex);
  }
  lua_remove(L, fnameindex);
  return status;
}


typedef struct LoadS {
  const char *s;
  size_t size;
} LoadS;


static const char *getS (lua_State *L, void *ud, size_t *size) {
  LoadS *ls = (LoadS *)ud;
  (void)L;  /* not used */
  if (ls->size == 0) return NULL;
  *size = ls->size;
  ls->size = 0;
  return ls->s;
}


LUALIB_API int luaL_loadbufferx (lua_State *L, const char *buff, size_t size,
                                 const char *name, const char *mode) {
  LoadS ls;
  ls.s = buff;
  ls.size = size;
  return lua_load(L, getS, &ls, name, mode);
}


LUALIB_API int luaL_loadstring (lua_State *L, const char *s) {
  return luaL_loadbuffer(L, s, strlen(s), s);
}

/* }====================================================== */



LUALIB_API int luaL_getmetafield (lua_State *L, int obj, const char *event) {
  if (!lua_getmetatable(L, obj))  /* no metatable? */
    return 0;
  lua_pushstring(L, event);
  lua_rawget(L, -2);
  if (lua_isnil(L, -1)) {
    lua_pop(L, 2);  /* remove metatable and metafield */
    return 0;
  }
  else {
    lua_remove(L, -2);  /* remove only metatable */
    return 1;
  }
}


LUALIB_API int luaL_callmeta (lua_State *L, int obj, const char *event) {
  obj = lua_absindex(L, obj);
  if (!luaL_getmetafield(L, obj, event))  /* no metafield? */
    return 0;
  lua_pushvalue(L, obj);
  lua_call(L, 1, 1);
  return 1;
}


LUALIB_API int luaL_len (lua_State *L, int idx) {
  int l;
  int isnum;
  lua_len(L, idx);
  l = (int)lua_tointegerx(L, -1, &isnum);
  if (!isnum)
    luaL_error(L, "object length is not a number");
  lua_pop(L, 1);  /* remove object */
  return l;
}


LUALIB_API const char *luaL_tolstring (lua_State *L, int idx, size_t *len) {
  if (!luaL_callmeta(L, idx, "__tostring")) {  /* no metafield? */
    switch (lua_type(L, idx)) {
      case LUA_TNUMBER:
      case LUA_TSTRING:
        lua_pushvalue(L, idx);
        break;
      case LUA_TBOOLEAN:
        lua_pushstring(L, (lua_toboolean(L, idx) ? "true" : "false"));
        break;
      case LUA_TNIL:
        lua_pushliteral(L, "nil");
        break;
      default:
        lua_pushfstring(L, "%s: %p", luaL_typename(L, idx),
                                            lua_topointer(L, idx));
        break;
    }
  }
  return lua_tolstring(L, -1, len);
}


/*
** {======================================================
** Compatibility with 5.1 module functions
** =======================================================
*/
#if defined(LUA_COMPAT_MODULE)

static const char *luaL_findtable (lua_State *L, int idx,
                                   const char *fname, int szhint) {
  const char *e;
  if (idx) lua_pushvalue(L, idx);
  do {
    e = strchr(fname, '.');
    if (e == NULL) e = fname + strlen(fname);
    lua_pushlstring(L, fname, e - fname);
    lua_rawget(L, -2);
    if (lua_isnil(L, -1)) {  /* no such field? */
      lua_pop(L, 1);  /* remove this nil */
      lua_createtable(L, 0, (*e == '.' ? 1 : szhint)); /* new table for field */
      lua_pushlstring(L, fname, e - fname);
      lua_pushvalue(L, -2);
      lua_settable(L, -4);  /* set new table into field */
    }
    else if (!lua_istable(L, -1)) {  /* field has a non-table value? */
      lua_pop(L, 2);  /* remove table and value */
      return fname;  /* return problematic part of the name */
    }
    lua_remove(L, -2);  /* remove previous table */
    fname = e + 1;
  } while (*e == '.');
  return NULL;
}


/*
** Count number of elements in a luaL_Reg list.
*/
static int libsize (const luaL_Reg *l) {
  int size = 0;
  for (; l && l->name; l++) size++;
  return size;
}


/*
** Find or create a module table with a given name. The function
** first looks at the _LOADED table and, if that fails, try a
** global variable with that name. In any case, leaves on the stack
** the module table.
*/
LUALIB_API void luaL_pushmodule (lua_State *L, const char *modname,
                                 int sizehint) {
  luaL_findtable(L, LUA_REGISTRYINDEX, "_LOADED", 1);  /* get _LOADED table */
  lua_getfield(L, -1, modname);  /* get _LOADED[modname] */
  if (!lua_istable(L, -1)) {  /* not found? */
    lua_pop(L, 1);  /* remove previous result */
    /* try global variable (and create one if it does not exist) */
    lua_pushglobaltable(L);
    if (luaL_findtable(L, 0, modname, sizehint) != NULL)
      luaL_error(L, "name conflict for module " LUA_QS, modname);
    lua_pushvalue(L, -1);
    lua_setfield(L, -3, modname);  /* _LOADED[modname] = new table */
  }
  lua_remove(L, -2);  /* remove _LOADED table */
}


LUALIB_API void luaL_openlib (lua_State *L, const char *libname,
                               const luaL_Reg *l, int nup) {
  luaL_checkversion(L);
  if (libname) {
    luaL_pushmodule(L, libname, libsize(l));  /* get/create library table */
    lua_insert(L, -(nup + 1));  /* move library table to below upvalues */
  }
  if (l)
    luaL_setfuncs(L, l, nup);
  else
    lua_pop(L, nup);  /* remove upvalues */
}

#endif
/* }====================================================== */

/*
** set functions from list 'l' into table at top - 'nup'; each
** function gets the 'nup' elements at the top as upvalues.
** Returns with only the table at the stack.
*/
LUALIB_API void luaL_setfuncs (lua_State *L, const luaL_Reg *l, int nup) {
  luaL_checkversion(L);
  luaL_checkstack(L, nup, "too many upvalues");
  for (; l->name != NULL; l++) {  /* fill the table with given functions */
    int i;
    for (i = 0; i < nup; i++)  /* copy upvalues to the top */
      lua_pushvalue(L, -nup);
    lua_pushcclosure(L, l->func, nup);  /* closure with those upvalues */
    lua_setfield(L, -(nup + 2), l->name);
  }
  lua_pop(L, nup);  /* remove upvalues */
}


/*
** ensure that stack[idx][fname] has a table and push that table
** into the stack
*/
LUALIB_API int luaL_getsubtable (lua_State *L, int idx, const char *fname) {
  lua_getfield(L, idx, fname);
  if (lua_istable(L, -1)) return 1;  /* table already there */
  else {
    lua_pop(L, 1);  /* remove previous result */
    idx = lua_absindex(L, idx);
    lua_newtable(L);
    lua_pushvalue(L, -1);  /* copy to be left at top */
    lua_setfield(L, idx, fname);  /* assign new table to field */
    return 0;  /* false, because did not find table there */
  }
}


/*
** stripped-down 'require'. Calls 'openf' to open a module,
** registers the result in 'package.loaded' table and, if 'glb'
** is true, also registers the result in the global table.
** Leaves resulting module on the top.
*/
LUALIB_API void luaL_requiref (lua_State *L, const char *modname,
                               lua_CFunction openf, int glb) {
  lua_pushcfunction(L, openf);
  lua_pushstring(L, modname);  /* argument to open function */
  lua_call(L, 1, 1);  /* open module */
  luaL_getsubtable(L, LUA_REGISTRYINDEX, "_LOADED");
  lua_pushvalue(L, -2);  /* make copy of module (call result) */
  lua_setfield(L, -2, modname);  /* _LOADED[modname] = module */
  lua_pop(L, 1);  /* remove _LOADED table */
  if (glb) {
    lua_pushvalue(L, -1);  /* copy of 'mod' */
    lua_setglobal(L, modname);  /* _G[modname] = module */
  }
}


LUALIB_API const char *luaL_gsub (lua_State *L, const char *s, const char *p,
                                                               const char *r) {
  const char *wild;
  size_t l = strlen(p);
  luaL_Buffer b;
  luaL_buffinit(L, &b);
  while ((wild = strstr(s, p)) != NULL) {
    luaL_addlstring(&b, s, wild - s);  /* push prefix */
    luaL_addstring(&b, r);  /* push replacement in place of pattern */
    s = wild + l;  /* continue after `p' */
  }
  luaL_addstring(&b, s);  /* push last suffix */
  luaL_pushresult(&b);
  return lua_tostring(L, -1);
}


static void *l_alloc (void *ud, void *ptr, size_t osize, size_t nsize) {
  (void)ud; (void)osize;  /* not used */
  if (nsize == 0) {
    free(ptr);
    return NULL;
  }
  else
    return realloc(ptr, nsize);
}


static int panic (lua_State *L) {
  luai_writestringerror("PANIC: unprotected error in call to Lua API (%s)\n",
                   lua_tostring(L, -1));
  return 0;  /* return to Lua to abort */
}


LUALIB_API lua_State *luaL_newstate (void) {
  lua_State *L = lua_newstate(l_alloc, NULL);
  if (L) lua_atpanic(L, &panic);
  return L;
}


LUALIB_API void luaL_checkversion_ (lua_State *L, lua_Number ver) {
  const lua_Number *v = lua_version(L);
  if (v != lua_version(NULL))
    luaL_error(L, "multiple Lua VMs detected");
  else if (*v != ver)
    luaL_error(L, "version mismatch: app. needs %f, Lua core provides %f",
                  ver, *v);
  /* check conversions number -> integer types */
  lua_pushnumber(L, -(lua_Number)0x1234);
  if (lua_tointeger(L, -1) != -0x1234 ||
      lua_tounsigned(L, -1) != (lua_Unsigned)-0x1234)
    luaL_error(L, "bad conversion number->int;"
                  " must recompile Lua with proper settings");
  lua_pop(L, 1);
}