lua/lvm.c
author Ryan C. Gordon <icculus@icculus.org>
Fri, 23 Jun 2017 17:28:03 -0400
changeset 58 1390348facc7
parent 0 d7ee4e2ed49d
permissions -rw-r--r--
Command line tool that decrypts an OPVault keychain and dumps it to stdout. To compile: gcc -o opvault opvault.c cJSON.c -lcrypto Usage: ./opvault </path/to/mykeychain.opvault> <password> This is just a proof of concept; I'll be recycling this into proper OPVault support in 1pass later and deleting this tool. This uses OpenSSL's libcrypto for the math instead of all the homegrown crypto this project is otherwise using. I'll probably migrate the rest in this direction, too, since this wasn't as bad as I expected to use and gets you all the package-manager mojo of automatic bug fixes and security patches and shared code, etc. cJSON parses JSON in C. That is from https://github.com/DaveGamble/cJSON An example OPVault keychain from AgileBits is available here: https://cache.agilebits.com/security-kb/

/*
** $Id: lvm.c,v 2.155.1.1 2013/04/12 18:48:47 roberto Exp $
** Lua virtual machine
** See Copyright Notice in lua.h
*/


#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>

#define lvm_c
#define LUA_CORE

#include "lua.h"

#include "ldebug.h"
#include "ldo.h"
#include "lfunc.h"
#include "lgc.h"
#include "lobject.h"
#include "lopcodes.h"
#include "lstate.h"
#include "lstring.h"
#include "ltable.h"
#include "ltm.h"
#include "lvm.h"



/* limit for table tag-method chains (to avoid loops) */
#define MAXTAGLOOP	100


const TValue *luaV_tonumber (const TValue *obj, TValue *n) {
  lua_Number num;
  if (ttisnumber(obj)) return obj;
  if (ttisstring(obj) && luaO_str2d(svalue(obj), tsvalue(obj)->len, &num)) {
    setnvalue(n, num);
    return n;
  }
  else
    return NULL;
}


int luaV_tostring (lua_State *L, StkId obj) {
  if (!ttisnumber(obj))
    return 0;
  else {
    char s[LUAI_MAXNUMBER2STR];
    lua_Number n = nvalue(obj);
    int l = lua_number2str(s, n);
    setsvalue2s(L, obj, luaS_newlstr(L, s, l));
    return 1;
  }
}


static void traceexec (lua_State *L) {
  CallInfo *ci = L->ci;
  lu_byte mask = L->hookmask;
  int counthook = ((mask & LUA_MASKCOUNT) && L->hookcount == 0);
  if (counthook)
    resethookcount(L);  /* reset count */
  if (ci->callstatus & CIST_HOOKYIELD) {  /* called hook last time? */
    ci->callstatus &= ~CIST_HOOKYIELD;  /* erase mark */
    return;  /* do not call hook again (VM yielded, so it did not move) */
  }
  if (counthook)
    luaD_hook(L, LUA_HOOKCOUNT, -1);  /* call count hook */
  if (mask & LUA_MASKLINE) {
    Proto *p = ci_func(ci)->p;
    int npc = pcRel(ci->u.l.savedpc, p);
    int newline = getfuncline(p, npc);
    if (npc == 0 ||  /* call linehook when enter a new function, */
        ci->u.l.savedpc <= L->oldpc ||  /* when jump back (loop), or when */
        newline != getfuncline(p, pcRel(L->oldpc, p)))  /* enter a new line */
      luaD_hook(L, LUA_HOOKLINE, newline);  /* call line hook */
  }
  L->oldpc = ci->u.l.savedpc;
  if (L->status == LUA_YIELD) {  /* did hook yield? */
    if (counthook)
      L->hookcount = 1;  /* undo decrement to zero */
    ci->u.l.savedpc--;  /* undo increment (resume will increment it again) */
    ci->callstatus |= CIST_HOOKYIELD;  /* mark that it yielded */
    ci->func = L->top - 1;  /* protect stack below results */
    luaD_throw(L, LUA_YIELD);
  }
}


static void callTM (lua_State *L, const TValue *f, const TValue *p1,
                    const TValue *p2, TValue *p3, int hasres) {
  ptrdiff_t result = savestack(L, p3);
  setobj2s(L, L->top++, f);  /* push function */
  setobj2s(L, L->top++, p1);  /* 1st argument */
  setobj2s(L, L->top++, p2);  /* 2nd argument */
  if (!hasres)  /* no result? 'p3' is third argument */
    setobj2s(L, L->top++, p3);  /* 3rd argument */
  /* metamethod may yield only when called from Lua code */
  luaD_call(L, L->top - (4 - hasres), hasres, isLua(L->ci));
  if (hasres) {  /* if has result, move it to its place */
    p3 = restorestack(L, result);
    setobjs2s(L, p3, --L->top);
  }
}


void luaV_gettable (lua_State *L, const TValue *t, TValue *key, StkId val) {
  int loop;
  for (loop = 0; loop < MAXTAGLOOP; loop++) {
    const TValue *tm;
    if (ttistable(t)) {  /* `t' is a table? */
      Table *h = hvalue(t);
      const TValue *res = luaH_get(h, key); /* do a primitive get */
      if (!ttisnil(res) ||  /* result is not nil? */
          (tm = fasttm(L, h->metatable, TM_INDEX)) == NULL) { /* or no TM? */
        setobj2s(L, val, res);
        return;
      }
      /* else will try the tag method */
    }
    else if (ttisnil(tm = luaT_gettmbyobj(L, t, TM_INDEX)))
      luaG_typeerror(L, t, "index");
    if (ttisfunction(tm)) {
      callTM(L, tm, t, key, val, 1);
      return;
    }
    t = tm;  /* else repeat with 'tm' */
  }
  luaG_runerror(L, "loop in gettable");
}


void luaV_settable (lua_State *L, const TValue *t, TValue *key, StkId val) {
  int loop;
  for (loop = 0; loop < MAXTAGLOOP; loop++) {
    const TValue *tm;
    if (ttistable(t)) {  /* `t' is a table? */
      Table *h = hvalue(t);
      TValue *oldval = cast(TValue *, luaH_get(h, key));
      /* if previous value is not nil, there must be a previous entry
         in the table; moreover, a metamethod has no relevance */
      if (!ttisnil(oldval) ||
         /* previous value is nil; must check the metamethod */
         ((tm = fasttm(L, h->metatable, TM_NEWINDEX)) == NULL &&
         /* no metamethod; is there a previous entry in the table? */
         (oldval != luaO_nilobject ||
         /* no previous entry; must create one. (The next test is
            always true; we only need the assignment.) */
         (oldval = luaH_newkey(L, h, key), 1)))) {
        /* no metamethod and (now) there is an entry with given key */
        setobj2t(L, oldval, val);  /* assign new value to that entry */
        invalidateTMcache(h);
        luaC_barrierback(L, obj2gco(h), val);
        return;
      }
      /* else will try the metamethod */
    }
    else  /* not a table; check metamethod */
      if (ttisnil(tm = luaT_gettmbyobj(L, t, TM_NEWINDEX)))
        luaG_typeerror(L, t, "index");
    /* there is a metamethod */
    if (ttisfunction(tm)) {
      callTM(L, tm, t, key, val, 0);
      return;
    }
    t = tm;  /* else repeat with 'tm' */
  }
  luaG_runerror(L, "loop in settable");
}


static int call_binTM (lua_State *L, const TValue *p1, const TValue *p2,
                       StkId res, TMS event) {
  const TValue *tm = luaT_gettmbyobj(L, p1, event);  /* try first operand */
  if (ttisnil(tm))
    tm = luaT_gettmbyobj(L, p2, event);  /* try second operand */
  if (ttisnil(tm)) return 0;
  callTM(L, tm, p1, p2, res, 1);
  return 1;
}


static const TValue *get_equalTM (lua_State *L, Table *mt1, Table *mt2,
                                  TMS event) {
  const TValue *tm1 = fasttm(L, mt1, event);
  const TValue *tm2;
  if (tm1 == NULL) return NULL;  /* no metamethod */
  if (mt1 == mt2) return tm1;  /* same metatables => same metamethods */
  tm2 = fasttm(L, mt2, event);
  if (tm2 == NULL) return NULL;  /* no metamethod */
  if (luaV_rawequalobj(tm1, tm2))  /* same metamethods? */
    return tm1;
  return NULL;
}


static int call_orderTM (lua_State *L, const TValue *p1, const TValue *p2,
                         TMS event) {
  if (!call_binTM(L, p1, p2, L->top, event))
    return -1;  /* no metamethod */
  else
    return !l_isfalse(L->top);
}


static int l_strcmp (const TString *ls, const TString *rs) {
  const char *l = getstr(ls);
  size_t ll = ls->tsv.len;
  const char *r = getstr(rs);
  size_t lr = rs->tsv.len;
  for (;;) {
    int temp = strcoll(l, r);
    if (temp != 0) return temp;
    else {  /* strings are equal up to a `\0' */
      size_t len = strlen(l);  /* index of first `\0' in both strings */
      if (len == lr)  /* r is finished? */
        return (len == ll) ? 0 : 1;
      else if (len == ll)  /* l is finished? */
        return -1;  /* l is smaller than r (because r is not finished) */
      /* both strings longer than `len'; go on comparing (after the `\0') */
      len++;
      l += len; ll -= len; r += len; lr -= len;
    }
  }
}


int luaV_lessthan (lua_State *L, const TValue *l, const TValue *r) {
  int res;
  if (ttisnumber(l) && ttisnumber(r))
    return luai_numlt(L, nvalue(l), nvalue(r));
  else if (ttisstring(l) && ttisstring(r))
    return l_strcmp(rawtsvalue(l), rawtsvalue(r)) < 0;
  else if ((res = call_orderTM(L, l, r, TM_LT)) < 0)
    luaG_ordererror(L, l, r);
  return res;
}


int luaV_lessequal (lua_State *L, const TValue *l, const TValue *r) {
  int res;
  if (ttisnumber(l) && ttisnumber(r))
    return luai_numle(L, nvalue(l), nvalue(r));
  else if (ttisstring(l) && ttisstring(r))
    return l_strcmp(rawtsvalue(l), rawtsvalue(r)) <= 0;
  else if ((res = call_orderTM(L, l, r, TM_LE)) >= 0)  /* first try `le' */
    return res;
  else if ((res = call_orderTM(L, r, l, TM_LT)) < 0)  /* else try `lt' */
    luaG_ordererror(L, l, r);
  return !res;
}


/*
** equality of Lua values. L == NULL means raw equality (no metamethods)
*/
int luaV_equalobj_ (lua_State *L, const TValue *t1, const TValue *t2) {
  const TValue *tm;
  lua_assert(ttisequal(t1, t2));
  switch (ttype(t1)) {
    case LUA_TNIL: return 1;
    case LUA_TNUMBER: return luai_numeq(nvalue(t1), nvalue(t2));
    case LUA_TBOOLEAN: return bvalue(t1) == bvalue(t2);  /* true must be 1 !! */
    case LUA_TLIGHTUSERDATA: return pvalue(t1) == pvalue(t2);
    case LUA_TLCF: return fvalue(t1) == fvalue(t2);
    case LUA_TSHRSTR: return eqshrstr(rawtsvalue(t1), rawtsvalue(t2));
    case LUA_TLNGSTR: return luaS_eqlngstr(rawtsvalue(t1), rawtsvalue(t2));
    case LUA_TUSERDATA: {
      if (uvalue(t1) == uvalue(t2)) return 1;
      else if (L == NULL) return 0;
      tm = get_equalTM(L, uvalue(t1)->metatable, uvalue(t2)->metatable, TM_EQ);
      break;  /* will try TM */
    }
    case LUA_TTABLE: {
      if (hvalue(t1) == hvalue(t2)) return 1;
      else if (L == NULL) return 0;
      tm = get_equalTM(L, hvalue(t1)->metatable, hvalue(t2)->metatable, TM_EQ);
      break;  /* will try TM */
    }
    default:
      lua_assert(iscollectable(t1));
      return gcvalue(t1) == gcvalue(t2);
  }
  if (tm == NULL) return 0;  /* no TM? */
  callTM(L, tm, t1, t2, L->top, 1);  /* call TM */
  return !l_isfalse(L->top);
}


void luaV_concat (lua_State *L, int total) {
  lua_assert(total >= 2);
  do {
    StkId top = L->top;
    int n = 2;  /* number of elements handled in this pass (at least 2) */
    if (!(ttisstring(top-2) || ttisnumber(top-2)) || !tostring(L, top-1)) {
      if (!call_binTM(L, top-2, top-1, top-2, TM_CONCAT))
        luaG_concaterror(L, top-2, top-1);
    }
    else if (tsvalue(top-1)->len == 0)  /* second operand is empty? */
      (void)tostring(L, top - 2);  /* result is first operand */
    else if (ttisstring(top-2) && tsvalue(top-2)->len == 0) {
      setobjs2s(L, top - 2, top - 1);  /* result is second op. */
    }
    else {
      /* at least two non-empty string values; get as many as possible */
      size_t tl = tsvalue(top-1)->len;
      char *buffer;
      int i;
      /* collect total length */
      for (i = 1; i < total && tostring(L, top-i-1); i++) {
        size_t l = tsvalue(top-i-1)->len;
        if (l >= (MAX_SIZET/sizeof(char)) - tl)
          luaG_runerror(L, "string length overflow");
        tl += l;
      }
      buffer = luaZ_openspace(L, &G(L)->buff, tl);
      tl = 0;
      n = i;
      do {  /* concat all strings */
        size_t l = tsvalue(top-i)->len;
        memcpy(buffer+tl, svalue(top-i), l * sizeof(char));
        tl += l;
      } while (--i > 0);
      setsvalue2s(L, top-n, luaS_newlstr(L, buffer, tl));
    }
    total -= n-1;  /* got 'n' strings to create 1 new */
    L->top -= n-1;  /* popped 'n' strings and pushed one */
  } while (total > 1);  /* repeat until only 1 result left */
}


void luaV_objlen (lua_State *L, StkId ra, const TValue *rb) {
  const TValue *tm;
  switch (ttypenv(rb)) {
    case LUA_TTABLE: {
      Table *h = hvalue(rb);
      tm = fasttm(L, h->metatable, TM_LEN);
      if (tm) break;  /* metamethod? break switch to call it */
      setnvalue(ra, cast_num(luaH_getn(h)));  /* else primitive len */
      return;
    }
    case LUA_TSTRING: {
      setnvalue(ra, cast_num(tsvalue(rb)->len));
      return;
    }
    default: {  /* try metamethod */
      tm = luaT_gettmbyobj(L, rb, TM_LEN);
      if (ttisnil(tm))  /* no metamethod? */
        luaG_typeerror(L, rb, "get length of");
      break;
    }
  }
  callTM(L, tm, rb, rb, ra, 1);
}


void luaV_arith (lua_State *L, StkId ra, const TValue *rb,
                 const TValue *rc, TMS op) {
  TValue tempb, tempc;
  const TValue *b, *c;
  if ((b = luaV_tonumber(rb, &tempb)) != NULL &&
      (c = luaV_tonumber(rc, &tempc)) != NULL) {
    lua_Number res = luaO_arith(op - TM_ADD + LUA_OPADD, nvalue(b), nvalue(c));
    setnvalue(ra, res);
  }
  else if (!call_binTM(L, rb, rc, ra, op))
    luaG_aritherror(L, rb, rc);
}


/*
** check whether cached closure in prototype 'p' may be reused, that is,
** whether there is a cached closure with the same upvalues needed by
** new closure to be created.
*/
static Closure *getcached (Proto *p, UpVal **encup, StkId base) {
  Closure *c = p->cache;
  if (c != NULL) {  /* is there a cached closure? */
    int nup = p->sizeupvalues;
    Upvaldesc *uv = p->upvalues;
    int i;
    for (i = 0; i < nup; i++) {  /* check whether it has right upvalues */
      TValue *v = uv[i].instack ? base + uv[i].idx : encup[uv[i].idx]->v;
      if (c->l.upvals[i]->v != v)
        return NULL;  /* wrong upvalue; cannot reuse closure */
    }
  }
  return c;  /* return cached closure (or NULL if no cached closure) */
}


/*
** create a new Lua closure, push it in the stack, and initialize
** its upvalues. Note that the call to 'luaC_barrierproto' must come
** before the assignment to 'p->cache', as the function needs the
** original value of that field.
*/
static void pushclosure (lua_State *L, Proto *p, UpVal **encup, StkId base,
                         StkId ra) {
  int nup = p->sizeupvalues;
  Upvaldesc *uv = p->upvalues;
  int i;
  Closure *ncl = luaF_newLclosure(L, nup);
  ncl->l.p = p;
  setclLvalue(L, ra, ncl);  /* anchor new closure in stack */
  for (i = 0; i < nup; i++) {  /* fill in its upvalues */
    if (uv[i].instack)  /* upvalue refers to local variable? */
      ncl->l.upvals[i] = luaF_findupval(L, base + uv[i].idx);
    else  /* get upvalue from enclosing function */
      ncl->l.upvals[i] = encup[uv[i].idx];
  }
  luaC_barrierproto(L, p, ncl);
  p->cache = ncl;  /* save it on cache for reuse */
}


/*
** finish execution of an opcode interrupted by an yield
*/
void luaV_finishOp (lua_State *L) {
  CallInfo *ci = L->ci;
  StkId base = ci->u.l.base;
  Instruction inst = *(ci->u.l.savedpc - 1);  /* interrupted instruction */
  OpCode op = GET_OPCODE(inst);
  switch (op) {  /* finish its execution */
    case OP_ADD: case OP_SUB: case OP_MUL: case OP_DIV:
    case OP_MOD: case OP_POW: case OP_UNM: case OP_LEN:
    case OP_GETTABUP: case OP_GETTABLE: case OP_SELF: {
      setobjs2s(L, base + GETARG_A(inst), --L->top);
      break;
    }
    case OP_LE: case OP_LT: case OP_EQ: {
      int res = !l_isfalse(L->top - 1);
      L->top--;
      /* metamethod should not be called when operand is K */
      lua_assert(!ISK(GETARG_B(inst)));
      if (op == OP_LE &&  /* "<=" using "<" instead? */
          ttisnil(luaT_gettmbyobj(L, base + GETARG_B(inst), TM_LE)))
        res = !res;  /* invert result */
      lua_assert(GET_OPCODE(*ci->u.l.savedpc) == OP_JMP);
      if (res != GETARG_A(inst))  /* condition failed? */
        ci->u.l.savedpc++;  /* skip jump instruction */
      break;
    }
    case OP_CONCAT: {
      StkId top = L->top - 1;  /* top when 'call_binTM' was called */
      int b = GETARG_B(inst);      /* first element to concatenate */
      int total = cast_int(top - 1 - (base + b));  /* yet to concatenate */
      setobj2s(L, top - 2, top);  /* put TM result in proper position */
      if (total > 1) {  /* are there elements to concat? */
        L->top = top - 1;  /* top is one after last element (at top-2) */
        luaV_concat(L, total);  /* concat them (may yield again) */
      }
      /* move final result to final position */
      setobj2s(L, ci->u.l.base + GETARG_A(inst), L->top - 1);
      L->top = ci->top;  /* restore top */
      break;
    }
    case OP_TFORCALL: {
      lua_assert(GET_OPCODE(*ci->u.l.savedpc) == OP_TFORLOOP);
      L->top = ci->top;  /* correct top */
      break;
    }
    case OP_CALL: {
      if (GETARG_C(inst) - 1 >= 0)  /* nresults >= 0? */
        L->top = ci->top;  /* adjust results */
      break;
    }
    case OP_TAILCALL: case OP_SETTABUP: case OP_SETTABLE:
      break;
    default: lua_assert(0);
  }
}



/*
** some macros for common tasks in `luaV_execute'
*/

#if !defined luai_runtimecheck
#define luai_runtimecheck(L, c)		/* void */
#endif


#define RA(i)	(base+GETARG_A(i))
/* to be used after possible stack reallocation */
#define RB(i)	check_exp(getBMode(GET_OPCODE(i)) == OpArgR, base+GETARG_B(i))
#define RC(i)	check_exp(getCMode(GET_OPCODE(i)) == OpArgR, base+GETARG_C(i))
#define RKB(i)	check_exp(getBMode(GET_OPCODE(i)) == OpArgK, \
	ISK(GETARG_B(i)) ? k+INDEXK(GETARG_B(i)) : base+GETARG_B(i))
#define RKC(i)	check_exp(getCMode(GET_OPCODE(i)) == OpArgK, \
	ISK(GETARG_C(i)) ? k+INDEXK(GETARG_C(i)) : base+GETARG_C(i))
#define KBx(i)  \
  (k + (GETARG_Bx(i) != 0 ? GETARG_Bx(i) - 1 : GETARG_Ax(*ci->u.l.savedpc++)))


/* execute a jump instruction */
#define dojump(ci,i,e) \
  { int a = GETARG_A(i); \
    if (a > 0) luaF_close(L, ci->u.l.base + a - 1); \
    ci->u.l.savedpc += GETARG_sBx(i) + e; }

/* for test instructions, execute the jump instruction that follows it */
#define donextjump(ci)	{ i = *ci->u.l.savedpc; dojump(ci, i, 1); }


#define Protect(x)	{ {x;}; base = ci->u.l.base; }

#define checkGC(L,c)  \
  Protect( luaC_condGC(L,{L->top = (c);  /* limit of live values */ \
                          luaC_step(L); \
                          L->top = ci->top;})  /* restore top */ \
           luai_threadyield(L); )


#define arith_op(op,tm) { \
        TValue *rb = RKB(i); \
        TValue *rc = RKC(i); \
        if (ttisnumber(rb) && ttisnumber(rc)) { \
          lua_Number nb = nvalue(rb), nc = nvalue(rc); \
          setnvalue(ra, op(L, nb, nc)); \
        } \
        else { Protect(luaV_arith(L, ra, rb, rc, tm)); } }


#define vmdispatch(o)	switch(o)
#define vmcase(l,b)	case l: {b}  break;
#define vmcasenb(l,b)	case l: {b}		/* nb = no break */

void luaV_execute (lua_State *L) {
  CallInfo *ci = L->ci;
  LClosure *cl;
  TValue *k;
  StkId base;
 newframe:  /* reentry point when frame changes (call/return) */
  lua_assert(ci == L->ci);
  cl = clLvalue(ci->func);
  k = cl->p->k;
  base = ci->u.l.base;
  /* main loop of interpreter */
  for (;;) {
    Instruction i = *(ci->u.l.savedpc++);
    StkId ra;
    if ((L->hookmask & (LUA_MASKLINE | LUA_MASKCOUNT)) &&
        (--L->hookcount == 0 || L->hookmask & LUA_MASKLINE)) {
      Protect(traceexec(L));
    }
    /* WARNING: several calls may realloc the stack and invalidate `ra' */
    ra = RA(i);
    lua_assert(base == ci->u.l.base);
    lua_assert(base <= L->top && L->top < L->stack + L->stacksize);
    vmdispatch (GET_OPCODE(i)) {
      vmcase(OP_MOVE,
        setobjs2s(L, ra, RB(i));
      )
      vmcase(OP_LOADK,
        TValue *rb = k + GETARG_Bx(i);
        setobj2s(L, ra, rb);
      )
      vmcase(OP_LOADKX,
        TValue *rb;
        lua_assert(GET_OPCODE(*ci->u.l.savedpc) == OP_EXTRAARG);
        rb = k + GETARG_Ax(*ci->u.l.savedpc++);
        setobj2s(L, ra, rb);
      )
      vmcase(OP_LOADBOOL,
        setbvalue(ra, GETARG_B(i));
        if (GETARG_C(i)) ci->u.l.savedpc++;  /* skip next instruction (if C) */
      )
      vmcase(OP_LOADNIL,
        int b = GETARG_B(i);
        do {
          setnilvalue(ra++);
        } while (b--);
      )
      vmcase(OP_GETUPVAL,
        int b = GETARG_B(i);
        setobj2s(L, ra, cl->upvals[b]->v);
      )
      vmcase(OP_GETTABUP,
        int b = GETARG_B(i);
        Protect(luaV_gettable(L, cl->upvals[b]->v, RKC(i), ra));
      )
      vmcase(OP_GETTABLE,
        Protect(luaV_gettable(L, RB(i), RKC(i), ra));
      )
      vmcase(OP_SETTABUP,
        int a = GETARG_A(i);
        Protect(luaV_settable(L, cl->upvals[a]->v, RKB(i), RKC(i)));
      )
      vmcase(OP_SETUPVAL,
        UpVal *uv = cl->upvals[GETARG_B(i)];
        setobj(L, uv->v, ra);
        luaC_barrier(L, uv, ra);
      )
      vmcase(OP_SETTABLE,
        Protect(luaV_settable(L, ra, RKB(i), RKC(i)));
      )
      vmcase(OP_NEWTABLE,
        int b = GETARG_B(i);
        int c = GETARG_C(i);
        Table *t = luaH_new(L);
        sethvalue(L, ra, t);
        if (b != 0 || c != 0)
          luaH_resize(L, t, luaO_fb2int(b), luaO_fb2int(c));
        checkGC(L, ra + 1);
      )
      vmcase(OP_SELF,
        StkId rb = RB(i);
        setobjs2s(L, ra+1, rb);
        Protect(luaV_gettable(L, rb, RKC(i), ra));
      )
      vmcase(OP_ADD,
        arith_op(luai_numadd, TM_ADD);
      )
      vmcase(OP_SUB,
        arith_op(luai_numsub, TM_SUB);
      )
      vmcase(OP_MUL,
        arith_op(luai_nummul, TM_MUL);
      )
      vmcase(OP_DIV,
        arith_op(luai_numdiv, TM_DIV);
      )
      vmcase(OP_MOD,
        arith_op(luai_nummod, TM_MOD);
      )
      vmcase(OP_POW,
        arith_op(luai_numpow, TM_POW);
      )
      vmcase(OP_UNM,
        TValue *rb = RB(i);
        if (ttisnumber(rb)) {
          lua_Number nb = nvalue(rb);
          setnvalue(ra, luai_numunm(L, nb));
        }
        else {
          Protect(luaV_arith(L, ra, rb, rb, TM_UNM));
        }
      )
      vmcase(OP_NOT,
        TValue *rb = RB(i);
        int res = l_isfalse(rb);  /* next assignment may change this value */
        setbvalue(ra, res);
      )
      vmcase(OP_LEN,
        Protect(luaV_objlen(L, ra, RB(i)));
      )
      vmcase(OP_CONCAT,
        int b = GETARG_B(i);
        int c = GETARG_C(i);
        StkId rb;
        L->top = base + c + 1;  /* mark the end of concat operands */
        Protect(luaV_concat(L, c - b + 1));
        ra = RA(i);  /* 'luav_concat' may invoke TMs and move the stack */
        rb = b + base;
        setobjs2s(L, ra, rb);
        checkGC(L, (ra >= rb ? ra + 1 : rb));
        L->top = ci->top;  /* restore top */
      )
      vmcase(OP_JMP,
        dojump(ci, i, 0);
      )
      vmcase(OP_EQ,
        TValue *rb = RKB(i);
        TValue *rc = RKC(i);
        Protect(
          if (cast_int(equalobj(L, rb, rc)) != GETARG_A(i))
            ci->u.l.savedpc++;
          else
            donextjump(ci);
        )
      )
      vmcase(OP_LT,
        Protect(
          if (luaV_lessthan(L, RKB(i), RKC(i)) != GETARG_A(i))
            ci->u.l.savedpc++;
          else
            donextjump(ci);
        )
      )
      vmcase(OP_LE,
        Protect(
          if (luaV_lessequal(L, RKB(i), RKC(i)) != GETARG_A(i))
            ci->u.l.savedpc++;
          else
            donextjump(ci);
        )
      )
      vmcase(OP_TEST,
        if (GETARG_C(i) ? l_isfalse(ra) : !l_isfalse(ra))
            ci->u.l.savedpc++;
          else
          donextjump(ci);
      )
      vmcase(OP_TESTSET,
        TValue *rb = RB(i);
        if (GETARG_C(i) ? l_isfalse(rb) : !l_isfalse(rb))
          ci->u.l.savedpc++;
        else {
          setobjs2s(L, ra, rb);
          donextjump(ci);
        }
      )
      vmcase(OP_CALL,
        int b = GETARG_B(i);
        int nresults = GETARG_C(i) - 1;
        if (b != 0) L->top = ra+b;  /* else previous instruction set top */
        if (luaD_precall(L, ra, nresults)) {  /* C function? */
          if (nresults >= 0) L->top = ci->top;  /* adjust results */
          base = ci->u.l.base;
        }
        else {  /* Lua function */
          ci = L->ci;
          ci->callstatus |= CIST_REENTRY;
          goto newframe;  /* restart luaV_execute over new Lua function */
        }
      )
      vmcase(OP_TAILCALL,
        int b = GETARG_B(i);
        if (b != 0) L->top = ra+b;  /* else previous instruction set top */
        lua_assert(GETARG_C(i) - 1 == LUA_MULTRET);
        if (luaD_precall(L, ra, LUA_MULTRET))  /* C function? */
          base = ci->u.l.base;
        else {
          /* tail call: put called frame (n) in place of caller one (o) */
          CallInfo *nci = L->ci;  /* called frame */
          CallInfo *oci = nci->previous;  /* caller frame */
          StkId nfunc = nci->func;  /* called function */
          StkId ofunc = oci->func;  /* caller function */
          /* last stack slot filled by 'precall' */
          StkId lim = nci->u.l.base + getproto(nfunc)->numparams;
          int aux;
          /* close all upvalues from previous call */
          if (cl->p->sizep > 0) luaF_close(L, oci->u.l.base);
          /* move new frame into old one */
          for (aux = 0; nfunc + aux < lim; aux++)
            setobjs2s(L, ofunc + aux, nfunc + aux);
          oci->u.l.base = ofunc + (nci->u.l.base - nfunc);  /* correct base */
          oci->top = L->top = ofunc + (L->top - nfunc);  /* correct top */
          oci->u.l.savedpc = nci->u.l.savedpc;
          oci->callstatus |= CIST_TAIL;  /* function was tail called */
          ci = L->ci = oci;  /* remove new frame */
          lua_assert(L->top == oci->u.l.base + getproto(ofunc)->maxstacksize);
          goto newframe;  /* restart luaV_execute over new Lua function */
        }
      )
      vmcasenb(OP_RETURN,
        int b = GETARG_B(i);
        if (b != 0) L->top = ra+b-1;
        if (cl->p->sizep > 0) luaF_close(L, base);
        b = luaD_poscall(L, ra);
        if (!(ci->callstatus & CIST_REENTRY))  /* 'ci' still the called one */
          return;  /* external invocation: return */
        else {  /* invocation via reentry: continue execution */
          ci = L->ci;
          if (b) L->top = ci->top;
          lua_assert(isLua(ci));
          lua_assert(GET_OPCODE(*((ci)->u.l.savedpc - 1)) == OP_CALL);
          goto newframe;  /* restart luaV_execute over new Lua function */
        }
      )
      vmcase(OP_FORLOOP,
        lua_Number step = nvalue(ra+2);
        lua_Number idx = luai_numadd(L, nvalue(ra), step); /* increment index */
        lua_Number limit = nvalue(ra+1);
        if (luai_numlt(L, 0, step) ? luai_numle(L, idx, limit)
                                   : luai_numle(L, limit, idx)) {
          ci->u.l.savedpc += GETARG_sBx(i);  /* jump back */
          setnvalue(ra, idx);  /* update internal index... */
          setnvalue(ra+3, idx);  /* ...and external index */
        }
      )
      vmcase(OP_FORPREP,
        const TValue *init = ra;
        const TValue *plimit = ra+1;
        const TValue *pstep = ra+2;
        if (!tonumber(init, ra))
          luaG_runerror(L, LUA_QL("for") " initial value must be a number");
        else if (!tonumber(plimit, ra+1))
          luaG_runerror(L, LUA_QL("for") " limit must be a number");
        else if (!tonumber(pstep, ra+2))
          luaG_runerror(L, LUA_QL("for") " step must be a number");
        setnvalue(ra, luai_numsub(L, nvalue(ra), nvalue(pstep)));
        ci->u.l.savedpc += GETARG_sBx(i);
      )
      vmcasenb(OP_TFORCALL,
        StkId cb = ra + 3;  /* call base */
        setobjs2s(L, cb+2, ra+2);
        setobjs2s(L, cb+1, ra+1);
        setobjs2s(L, cb, ra);
        L->top = cb + 3;  /* func. + 2 args (state and index) */
        Protect(luaD_call(L, cb, GETARG_C(i), 1));
        L->top = ci->top;
        i = *(ci->u.l.savedpc++);  /* go to next instruction */
        ra = RA(i);
        lua_assert(GET_OPCODE(i) == OP_TFORLOOP);
        goto l_tforloop;
      )
      vmcase(OP_TFORLOOP,
        l_tforloop:
        if (!ttisnil(ra + 1)) {  /* continue loop? */
          setobjs2s(L, ra, ra + 1);  /* save control variable */
           ci->u.l.savedpc += GETARG_sBx(i);  /* jump back */
        }
      )
      vmcase(OP_SETLIST,
        int n = GETARG_B(i);
        int c = GETARG_C(i);
        int last;
        Table *h;
        if (n == 0) n = cast_int(L->top - ra) - 1;
        if (c == 0) {
          lua_assert(GET_OPCODE(*ci->u.l.savedpc) == OP_EXTRAARG);
          c = GETARG_Ax(*ci->u.l.savedpc++);
        }
        luai_runtimecheck(L, ttistable(ra));
        h = hvalue(ra);
        last = ((c-1)*LFIELDS_PER_FLUSH) + n;
        if (last > h->sizearray)  /* needs more space? */
          luaH_resizearray(L, h, last);  /* pre-allocate it at once */
        for (; n > 0; n--) {
          TValue *val = ra+n;
          luaH_setint(L, h, last--, val);
          luaC_barrierback(L, obj2gco(h), val);
        }
        L->top = ci->top;  /* correct top (in case of previous open call) */
      )
      vmcase(OP_CLOSURE,
        Proto *p = cl->p->p[GETARG_Bx(i)];
        Closure *ncl = getcached(p, cl->upvals, base);  /* cached closure */
        if (ncl == NULL)  /* no match? */
          pushclosure(L, p, cl->upvals, base, ra);  /* create a new one */
        else
          setclLvalue(L, ra, ncl);  /* push cashed closure */
        checkGC(L, ra + 1);
      )
      vmcase(OP_VARARG,
        int b = GETARG_B(i) - 1;
        int j;
        int n = cast_int(base - ci->func) - cl->p->numparams - 1;
        if (b < 0) {  /* B == 0? */
          b = n;  /* get all var. arguments */
          Protect(luaD_checkstack(L, n));
          ra = RA(i);  /* previous call may change the stack */
          L->top = ra + n;
        }
        for (j = 0; j < b; j++) {
          if (j < n) {
            setobjs2s(L, ra + j, base - n + j);
          }
          else {
            setnilvalue(ra + j);
          }
        }
      )
      vmcase(OP_EXTRAARG,
        lua_assert(0);
      )
    }
  }
}