docs/README-winrt.md
author David Ludwig <dludwig@pobox.com>
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WinRT
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=====
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This port allows SDL applications to run on Microsoft's platforms that require
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use of "Windows Runtime", aka. "WinRT", APIs.  WinRT apps are currently
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full-screen only, and run in what Microsoft sometimes refers to as their
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"Modern" (formerly, "Metro"), environment.  For Windows 8.x, Microsoft may also
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refer to them as "Windows Store" apps, due to them being distributed,
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primarily, via a Microsoft-run online store (of the same name).
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Some of the operating systems that include WinRT, are:
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* Windows 8.x
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* Windows RT 8.x (aka. Windows 8.x for ARM processors)
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* Windows Phone 8.x
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Requirements
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------------
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* Microsoft Visual C++ (aka Visual Studio), either 2013 or 2012 versions
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  - Free, "Express" editions may be used, so long as they include support for 
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    either "Windows Store" or "Windows Phone" apps.  Versions marked as
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    supporting "Windows Desktop" development typically do not include support
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    for creating WinRT apps.
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  - Visual C++ 2012 can only build apps that target versions 8.0 of Windows, or 
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    Windows Phone.  8.0-targetted apps will still run on devices running 
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    8.1 editions of Windows, however they will not be able to take advantage of 
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    8.1-specific features.
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  - Visual C++ 2013 can only create app projects that target 8.1 versions
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    of Windows, which do NOT run on 8.0 devices.  An optional Visual Studio
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    add-in, "Tools for Maintaining Store apps for Windows 8", allows projects
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    that are created with Visual C++ 2012, which can create Windows 8.0 apps,
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    to be loaded and built with non-Express editions of Visual C++ 2013.  More
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    details on targeting different versions of Windows can found at the
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    following web pages:
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      - [Develop apps by using Visual Studio 2013](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/apps/br211384.aspx)
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      - [To add the Tools for Maintaining Store apps for Windows 8](http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/apps/dn263114.aspx#AddMaintenanceTools)
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* A valid Microsoft account - This requirement is not imposed by SDL, but
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  rather by Microsoft's Visual C++ toolchain.  This is required to launch or 
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  debug apps.
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Status
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------
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Here is a rough list of what works, and what doens't:
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* What works:
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  * compilation via Visual C++ 2012 and 2013
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  * compile-time platform detection for SDL programs.  The C/C++ #define,
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    `__WINRT__`, will be set to 1 (by SDL) when compiling for WinRT.
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  * GPU-accelerated 2D rendering, via SDL_Renderer.
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  * software rendering, via either SDL_Surface (optionally in conjunction with
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    SDL_GetWindowSurface() and SDL_UpdateWindowSurface()) or via the
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    SDL_Renderer APIs
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  * threads.  Significant chunks of Win32's threading APIs are not available in
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    WinRT.  A new, SDL threading backend was built using C++11's threading APIs
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    (std::thread, std::mutex, std::condition_variable, etc.), which C or C++
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    programs alike can access via SDL's threading APIs.  Support for thread
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    priorities is not, however, currently available, due to restrictions in
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    WinRT's own API set.
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  * timers (via SDL_GetTicks(), SDL_AddTimer(), SDL_GetPerformanceCounter(),
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    SDL_GetPerformanceFrequency(), etc.)
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  * file I/O via SDL_RWops
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  * mouse input  (unsupported on Windows Phone)
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  * audio, via a modified version of SDL's XAudio2 backend
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  * .DLL file loading.  Libraries must be packaged inside applications.  Loading
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    anything outside of the app is not supported.
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  * system path retrieval via SDL's filesystem APIs
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  * game controllers.  Support is provided via the SDL_Joystick and
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    SDL_GameController APIs, and is backed by Microsoft's XInput API.
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  * multi-touch input
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  * app events.  SDL_APP_WILLENTER* and SDL_APP_DIDENTER* events get sent out as
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    appropriate.
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  * window events.  SDL_WINDOWEVENT_MINIMIZED and SDL_WINDOWEVENT_RESTORED are
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    sent out on app suspend and resume, respectively.  SDL_WINDOWEVENT_SHOWN and
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    SDL_WINDOWEVENT_HIDDEN are also sent, but not necessarily on app suspend or
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    resume, as WinRT treats these two concepts differently..
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  * using Direct3D 11.x APIs outside of SDL.  Non-XAML / Direct3D-only apps can
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    choose to render content directly via Direct3D, using SDL to manage the
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    internal WinRT window, as well as input and audio.  (Use
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    SDL_GetWindowWMInfo() to get the WinRT 'CoreWindow', and pass it into
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    IDXGIFactory2::CreateSwapChainForCoreWindow() as appropriate.)
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* What partially works:
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  * keyboard input.  Most of WinRT's documented virtual keys are supported, as
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    well as many keys with documented hardware scancodes.
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  * OpenGL.  Experimental support for OpenGL ES 2 is available via a
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    Microsoft-modified version of the ANGLE project, as available at
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    https://github.com/msopentech/angle .  Support is currently limited to the
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    "winrt" branch, however support for the "future-dev" branch is planned.
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  * SDLmain.  WinRT uses a different signature for each app's main() function.
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    SDL-based apps that use this port must compile in SDL_winrt_main_NonXAML.cpp
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    (in `SDL\src\main\winrt\`) directly in order for their C-style main()
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    functions to be called.
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  * XAML interoperability.  This feature is currently experimental (there are
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    **many** known bugs in this, at present!), preliminary, and only for
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    Windows 8.x/RT at the moment.  Windows Phone + XAML support is still
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    pending.
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* What doesn't work:
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  * compilation with anything other than Visual C++ 2012 or 2013
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  * programmatically-created custom cursors.  These don't appear to be supported
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    by WinRT.  Different OS-provided cursors can, however, be created via
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    SDL_CreateSystemCursor() (unsupported on Windows Phone)
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  * SDL_WarpMouseInWindow() or SDL_WarpMouseGlobal().  This are not currently
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    supported by WinRT itself.
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  * joysticks and game controllers that aren't supported by Microsoft's XInput
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    API.
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  * probably anything else that's not listed as supported
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Setup, High-Level Steps
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-----------------------
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The steps for setting up a project for an SDL/WinRT app looks like the
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following, at a high-level:
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1. create a new Visual C++ project using Microsoft's template for a,
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   "Direct3D App".
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2. remove most of the files from the project.
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3. make your app's project directly reference SDL/WinRT's own Visual C++
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   project file, via use of Visual C++'s "References" dialog.  This will setup
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   the linker, and will copy SDL's .dll files to your app's final output.
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4. adjust your app's build settings, at minimum, telling it where to find SDL's
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   header files.
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5. add a file that contains a WinRT-appropriate main function.
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6. add SDL-specific app code.
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7. build and run your app.
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Setup, Detailed Steps
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---------------------
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### 1. Create a new project ###
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Create a new project using one of Visual C++'s templates for a plain, non-XAML,
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"Direct3D App" (XAML support for SDL/WinRT is not yet ready for use).  If you
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don't see one of these templates, in Visual C++'s 'New Project' dialog, try
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using the textbox titled, 'Search Installed Templates' to look for one.
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### 2. Remove unneeded files from the project ###
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In the new project, delete any file that has one of the following extensions:
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- .cpp
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- .h
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- .hlsl
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When you are done, you should be left with a few files, each of which will be a
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necessary part of your app's project.  These files will consist of:
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- an .appxmanifest file, which contains metadata on your WinRT app.  This is
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  similar to an Info.plist file on iOS, or an AndroidManifest.xml on Android.
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- a few .png files, one of which is a splash screen (displayed when your app
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  launches), others are app icons.
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- a .pfx file, used for code signing purposes.
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### 3. Add references to SDL's project files ###
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SDL/WinRT can be built in multiple variations, spanning across three different
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CPU architectures (x86, x64, and ARM) and two different configurations
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(Debug and Release).  WinRT and Visual C++ do not currently provide a means
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for combining multiple variations of one library into a single file.
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Furthermore, it does not provide an easy means for copying pre-built .dll files
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into your app's final output (via Post-Build steps, for example).  It does,
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however, provide a system whereby an app can reference the MSVC projects of
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libraries such that, when the app is built:
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1. each library gets built for the appropriate CPU architecture(s) and WinRT
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   platform(s).
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2. each library's output, such as .dll files, get copied to the app's build 
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   output.
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To set this up for SDL/WinRT, you'll need to run through the following steps:
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1. open up the Solution Explorer inside Visual C++ (under the "View" menu, then
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   "Solution Explorer")
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2. right click on your app's solution.
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3. navigate to "Add", then to "Existing Project..."
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4. find SDL/WinRT's Visual C++ project file and open it.  Different project
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   files exist for different WinRT platforms.  All of them are in SDL's
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   source distribution, in the following directories:
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    * `VisualC-WinRT/WinPhone80_VS2012/` - for Windows Phone 8.0 apps
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    * `VisualC-WinRT/WinPhone81_VS2013/` - for Windows Phone 8.1 apps
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    * `VisualC-WinRT/WinRT80_VS2012/` - for Windows 8.0 apps
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    * `VisualC-WinRT/WinRT81_VS2013/` - for Windows 8.1 apps
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5. once the project has been added, right-click on your app's project and
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   select, "References..."
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6. click on the button titled, "Add New Reference..."
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7. check the box next to SDL
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8. click OK to close the dialog
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9. SDL will now show up in the list of references.  Click OK to close that
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   dialog.
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Your project is now linked to SDL's project, insofar that when the app is
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built, SDL will be built as well, with its build output getting included with
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your app.
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### 4. Adjust Your App's Build Settings ###
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Some build settings need to be changed in your app's project.  This guide will
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outline the following:
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- making sure that the compiler knows where to find SDL's header files
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- **Optional for C++, but NECESSARY for compiling C code:** telling the
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  compiler not to use Microsoft's C++ extensions for WinRT development.
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- **Optional:** telling the compiler not generate errors due to missing
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  precompiled header files.
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To change these settings:
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1. right-click on the project
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2. choose "Properties"
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3. in the drop-down box next to "Configuration", choose, "All Configurations"
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4. in the drop-down box next to "Platform", choose, "All Platforms"
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5. in the left-hand list, expand the "C/C++" section
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6. select "General"
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7. edit the "Additional Include Directories" setting, and add a path to SDL's
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   "include" directory
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8. **Optional: to enable compilation of C code:** change the setting for
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   "Consume Windows Runtime Extension" from "Yes (/ZW)" to "No".  If you're 
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   working with a completely C++ based project, this step can usually be 
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   omitted.
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9. **Optional: to disable precompiled headers (which can produce 
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   'stdafx.h'-related build errors, if setup incorrectly:** in the left-hand 
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   list, select "Precompiled Headers", then change the setting for "Precompiled 
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   Header" from "Use (/Yu)" to "Not Using Precompiled Headers".
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10. close the dialog, saving settings, by clicking the "OK" button
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### 5. Add a WinRT-appropriate main function to the app. ###
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C/C++-based WinRT apps do contain a `main` function that the OS will invoke when 
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the app starts launching. The parameters of WinRT main functions are different 
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than those found on other platforms, Win32 included.  SDL/WinRT provides a 
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platform-appropriate main function that will perform these actions, setup key 
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portions of the app, then invoke a classic, C/C++-style main function (that take 
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in "argc" and "argv" parameters).  The code for this file is contained inside 
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SDL's source distribution, under `src/main/winrt/SDL_winrt_main_NonXAML.cpp`.  
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You'll need to add this file, or a copy of it, to your app's project, and make 
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sure it gets compiled using a Microsoft-specific set of C++ extensions called 
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C++/CX.
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**NOTE: C++/CX compilation is currently required in at least one file of your 
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app's project.  This is to make sure that Visual C++'s linker builds a 'Windows 
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Metadata' file (.winmd) for your app.  Not doing so can lead to build errors.**
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To include `SDL_winrt_main_NonXAML.cpp`:
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1. right-click on your project (again, in Visual C++'s Solution Explorer), 
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   navigate to "Add", then choose "Existing Item...".
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2. open `SDL_winrt_main_NonXAML.cpp`, which is found inside SDL's source 
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   distribution, under `src/main/winrt/`.  Make sure that the open-file dialog 
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   closes, either by double-clicking on the file, or single-clicking on it and 
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   then clicking Add.
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3. right-click on the file (as listed in your project), then click on 
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   "Properties...".
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4. in the drop-down box next to "Configuration", choose, "All Configurations"
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5. in the drop-down box next to "Platform", choose, "All Platforms"
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6. in the left-hand list, click on "C/C++"
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7. change the setting for "Consume Windows Runtime Extension" to "Yes (/ZW)".
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8. click the OK button.  This will close the dialog.
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### 6. Add app code and assets ###
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At this point, you can add in SDL-specific source code.  Be sure to include a 
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C-style main function (ie: `int main(int argc, char *argv[])`).  From there you 
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should be able to create a single `SDL_Window` (WinRT apps can only have one 
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window, at present), as well as an `SDL_Renderer`.  Direct3D will be used to 
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draw content.  Events are received via SDL's usual event functions 
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(`SDL_PollEvent`, etc.)  If you have a set of existing source files and assets, 
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you can start adding them to the project now.  If not, or if you would like to 
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make sure that you're setup correctly, some short and simple sample code is 
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provided below.
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#### 6.A. ... when creating a new app ####
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If you are creating a new app (rather than porting an existing SDL-based app), 
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or if you would just like a simple app to test SDL/WinRT with before trying to 
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get existing code working, some working SDL/WinRT code is provided below.  To 
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set this up:
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1. right click on your app's project
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2. select Add, then New Item.  An "Add New Item" dialog will show up.
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3. from the left-hand list, choose "Visual C++"
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4. from the middle/main list, choose "C++ File (.cpp)"
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5. near the bottom of the dialog, next to "Name:", type in a name for your 
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source file, such as, "main.cpp".
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6. click on the Add button.  This will close the dialog, add the new file to 
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your project, and open the file in Visual C++'s text editor.
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7. Copy and paste the following code into the new file, then save it.
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    #include <SDL.h>
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    int main(int argc, char **argv)
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    {
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        SDL_DisplayMode mode;
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        SDL_Window * window = NULL;
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        SDL_Renderer * renderer = NULL;
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        SDL_Event evt;
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        if (SDL_Init(SDL_INIT_VIDEO) != 0) {
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            return 1;
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        }
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        if (SDL_GetCurrentDisplayMode(0, &mode) != 0) {
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            return 1;
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        }
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        if (SDL_CreateWindowAndRenderer(mode.w, mode.h, SDL_WINDOW_FULLSCREEN, &window, &renderer) != 0) {
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            return 1;
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        }
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        while (1) {
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            while (SDL_PollEvent(&evt)) {
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            }
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            SDL_SetRenderDrawColor(renderer, 0, 255, 0, 255);
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            SDL_RenderClear(renderer);
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            SDL_RenderPresent(renderer);
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        }
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    }
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#### 6.B. Adding code and assets ####
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If you have existing code and assets that you'd like to add, you should be able 
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to add them now.  The process for adding a set of files is as such.
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1. right click on the app's project
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2. select Add, then click on "New Item..."
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3. open any source, header, or asset files as appropriate.  Support for C and 
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C++ is available.
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Do note that WinRT only supports a subset of the APIs that are available to 
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Win32-based apps.  Many portions of the Win32 API and the C runtime are not 
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available.
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A list of unsupported C APIs can be found at 
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<http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/apps/jj606124.aspx>
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General information on using the C runtime in WinRT can be found at 
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<http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/LIBRARY/hh972425(v=vs.110).aspx>
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A list of supported Win32 APIs for Windows 8/RT apps can be found at 
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<http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windows/apps/br205757.aspx>.  To note, 
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the list of supported Win32 APIs for Windows Phone 8 development is different.  
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That list can be found at 
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<http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/windowsphone/develop/jj662956(v=vs.105).aspx>
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### 7. Build and run your app ###
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Your app project should now be setup, and you should be ready to build your app.  
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To run it on the local machine, open the Debug menu and choose "Start 
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Debugging".  This will build your app, then run your app full-screen.  To switch 
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out of your app, press the Windows key.  Alternatively, you can choose to run 
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your app in a window.  To do this, before building and running your app, find 
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the drop-down menu in Visual C++'s toolbar that says, "Local Machine".  Expand 
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this by clicking on the arrow on the right side of the list, then click on 
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Simulator.  Once you do that, any time you build and run the app, the app will 
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launch in window, rather than full-screen.
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   373
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   374
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#### 7.A. Running apps on ARM-based devices ####
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   377
To build and run the app on ARM-based, "Windows RT" devices, you'll need to:
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- install Microsoft's "Remote Debugger" on the device.  Visual C++ installs and 
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  debugs ARM-based apps via IP networks.
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- change a few options on the development machine, both to make sure it builds 
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  for ARM (rather than x86 or x64), and to make sure it knows how to find the 
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  Windows RT device (on the network).
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   384
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   385
Microsoft's Remote Debugger can be found at 
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<http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/vstudio/bt727f1t.aspx>.  Please note 
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that separate versions of this debugger exist for different versions of Visual 
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C++, one for debugging with MSVC 2012, another for debugging with MSVC 2013.
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To setup Visual C++ to launch your app on an ARM device:
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1. make sure the Remote Debugger is running on your ARM device, and that it's on 
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   the same IP network as your development machine.
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   394
2. from Visual C++'s toolbar, find a drop-down menu that says, "Win32".  Click 
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   it, then change the value to "ARM".
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3. make sure Visual C++ knows the hostname or IP address of the ARM device.  To 
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   do this:
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   398
    1. open the app project's properties
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   399
    2. select "Debugging"
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    3. next to "Machine Name", enter the hostname or IP address of the ARM 
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       device
9209
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    4. if, and only if, you've turned off authentication in the Remote Debugger,
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       then change the setting for "Require Authentication" to No
9139
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    5. click "OK"
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   405
4. build and run the app (from Visual C++).  The first time you do this, a 
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   406
   prompt will show up on the ARM device, asking for a Microsoft Account.  You 
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   407
   do, unfortunately, need to log in here, and will need to follow the 
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diff changeset
   408
   subsequent registration steps in order to launch the app.  After you do so, 
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   409
   if the app didn't already launch, try relaunching it again from within Visual 
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diff changeset
   410
   C++.
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9200
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   413
Troubleshooting
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   414
---------------
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#### Build fails with message, "error LNK2038: mismatch detected for 'vccorlib_lib_should_be_specified_before_msvcrt_lib_to_linker'"
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   417
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diff changeset
   418
Try adding the following to your linker flags.  In MSVC, this can be done by
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diff changeset
   419
right-clicking on the app project, navigating to Configuration Properties ->
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diff changeset
   420
Linker -> Command Line, then adding them to the Additional Options
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diff changeset
   421
section.
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   422
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diff changeset
   423
* For Release builds / MSVC-Configurations, add:
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   424
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diff changeset
   425
    /nodefaultlib:vccorlib /nodefaultlib:msvcrt vccorlib.lib msvcrt.lib
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   426
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   427
* For Debug builds / MSVC-Configurations, add:
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diff changeset
   428
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diff changeset
   429
    /nodefaultlib:vccorlibd /nodefaultlib:msvcrtd vccorlibd.lib msvcrtd.lib
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   431
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   432
TODO
9137
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   433
----
9139
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diff changeset
   434
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diff changeset
   435
- Document details of SDL satellite library support
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diff changeset
   436
- Make [NuGet](https://www.nuget.org) packages for SDL/WinRT
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diff changeset
   437
- Create templates for both MSVC 2012 and MSVC 2013, and have the corresponding
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diff changeset
   438
  VSIX packages either include pre-built copies of SDL, or reference binaries
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diff changeset
   439
  available via MSVC's NuGet servers
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diff changeset
   440
    - Write setup instructions that use MSVC 201x templates
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diff changeset
   441
- Write a list of caveats found in SDL/WinRT, such as APIs that don't work due
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diff changeset
   442
  to platform restrictions, or things that need further work